Archive for the fuel cell Category

Hydrogen: Cutting Through the Mental Smog

Posted in biofuel, electric car, environment, fossil fuel, fuel cell, green car, hydrogen, oil, renewable, sustainability on June 27, 2007 by jtoddring


An Overview: Where we stand with hydrogen fuel now

1. We need to get off polluting fossil fuels asap. This is obvious to just about everyone now.

2. Biofuels are better than fossil fuels – lower emissions for example – but with the possible
exception of celulosic bio-ethanol, they amount to the burning of food for the morally
questionable purpose of hauling our asses around in 2 tons of steel and glass. Unless
celulosic bio-ethanol makes major advances, biofuels are a very poor answer. Presently,
biofuels are biocidal: they amount to mass starvation if implemented widely. Biofuel may
be better than fossil fuel, but not by much.

3. Both hydrogen and electric vehicles offer zero emissions from the tail pipe (with H2 ICEs –
internal combustion engines – there is a tiny amount of NOXs, but practically zero when
compared to dino-juice burners). These two technologies are presently available, but only
on micro-scale: mass implementation is urgently needed.

4. Hydrogen and electric vehicles are demonstrated and proven viable. However, we cannot
wait for mass production of electric or hydrogen vehicles. The auto industry is too slow, and
besides, there are over 1 billion fossil fuel-burning vehicles on the planet now, with a median
life expectancy of 17 years. We cannot wait to retire and replace these vehicles. We must
begin converting all existing vehicles to green energy systems now, and as quickly as possible.

5. Hydrogen or electric? Electric cars are better than fossil fuel burners, but the power grid is
heavily polluting and heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Electric cars are only clean if they are
re-charged with an off-grid clean, renewable energy system. The same is true for the
sourcing of energy for hydrogen vehicles: hydrogen from fossil fuels is not a smart
answer – unless you’re an oil and gas company. Hydrogen only makes true environmental
sense when it is derived from clean, renewable wind or solar power, using waste (methane
from sewage, landfills or compost) or water – via reformation or electrolysis. In either case,
a distributed, decentralized green energy supply is what is needed, along with immediate
vehicle conversions.
There are passionate supporters of both green-tech camps, but the fact is, both are viable
and ready to go now, and either would be clean, renewable, and infinitely preferable to fossil
fuels, so long as they are implemented intelligently.

Re: Hydrogen generation through electrolysis requires more energy input than you get out.

(A reply to comments on Autoblog)

If we erroneously view hydrogen as an energy source, then this is an insurmountable problem: an energy source is not an energy source if it consumes more energy than it produces – obviously. There may be ways to harness hydrogen energy aside from electrolysis that are net energy producing processes, however, the point here is that hydrogen produced by electrolysis is not an energy source, but an energy carrier – like a battery. You don’t say, well, batteries are only energy carriers, not an energy source, therefore electric cars are non-feasible. You don’t say batteries defy the second law of thermodynamics because they require more energy than they produce – of course, because they do not produce energy; they merely store it.

Hydrogen produced by electrolysis likewise is a means to store energy – in hydrogen – for a hydrogen vehicle for example, just as a battery stores energy in an electric vehicle. In either case, the battery or the hydrogen is simply an energy storage medium, and either requires a primary energy source – ideally, solar or wind. Is this not clear enough? It is amazing how intelligent people can miss the obvious.

We don’t need to resort to physics principles to figure this out; we need merely to think it through. Hydrogen vehicles, using electrolysis generation systems which are powered by solar or wind power, are a viable and proven, clean, renewable and sustainable technology, right now. We should stop the non-sense and start implementing solar-hydrogen systems immediately. The energy may cost more than gas and oil, but gas and oil are costing us our future on this planet. The transition must begin.

Re: Big oil and energy companies control energy distribution networks

In the future – or now – households, businesses and communities can produce their own clean, green, sustainable energy – yes. And that being the case, they can also generate their own hydrogen fuel for transportation using solar and wind powered electrolysis. Big oil, big coal, and the corporate energy companies in general – including the giant contractor/construction firms that build the nuke plants – can all go the way of the dodo. Hydrogen is not antithetical to such a distributed, decentralized, locally-controlled non-fossil fuel clean energy infrastructure, but instead a vital component.

Fury and Fanfare Over Brad Pitt’s BMW Hydrogen 7

Reply to comments on Autoblog Green

I’m glad to see such a passionate and intelligent discussion about the relative advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen vehicles as compared with electric vehicles, even if it is a bit over-zealous at times. (The perfection of a given alternative may end up having less of an ecological impact than the speed of implementation of alternatives to fossil fuels, imperfect as those alternatives may be: perfectionism x micro-scale = minimal effect; whereas, a step forward that is widely adopted = major positive impact.)

A couple of points of clarification:

1. Hydrogen does not have to be produced from fossil fuels. The oil and gas companies want this, naturally, so that they will be the ones to control the hydrogen infrastructure for the coming decades, but such a solution is ridiculous, as was pointed out above. Hydrogen only makes sense when it is produced using non-fossil fuel green energy, such as solar or wind, utilizing electrolysis of water or reformation of methane from sewage or landfill waste. If done in this way, hydrogen is a clean, renewable fuel.

2. Electric vehicles require a primary source of power, just as hydrogen vehicles do: with electric vehicles, the primary source of power at present is the power grid, which is heavily polluting due to its heavy reliance on coal and other fossil fuels.

Electric vehicles are not green unless their power source is solar or wind: exactly as with hydrogen vehicles.

Let’s stop the tribal warfare. You’d think the hydrogen and electric vehicle advocates were the Hatfields and McCoys.

If we were to compare the best application of hydrogen (distributed green energy generation) with the worst application of electric vehicles (plug into the largely coal-fired power grid), we could come to an equally one-sided view in abhorrence of the latter in favour of the former. Let’s try to be fair-minded and clear-headed here.

3. There are 1 billion fossil fuel ICEs on the planet now, with a median life expectancy of 17 years. There is no way we can wait until these vehicles are retired and replaced. We need to switch to some combination of hydrogen and electric vehicles right now – or stop driving.

4. We do not have to wait – nor can we wait – for mass production of either electric vehicles or hydrogen FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) or ICEs: any existing ICE can be converted to either hydrogen or electric now. Take your choice, but one of these – or a combination of both – must be done asap.

5. Locally-based, distributed green energy generation, in combination with hydrogen and/or electric vehicle conversion, is what we urgently need. The rest is pretty much academic.

(P.S.: Hydrogen is safer than gasoline. Research it for yourself if you have any doubt. The public has been misinformed on that point. I had assumed in writing this post that the audience already had such basic understanding.)

J. Todd Ring,
June 26, 2007

See also:

BMW officially announces the BMW Hydrogen 7 – AutoblogGreen

Brad Pitt thinks BMW’s Hydrogen 7 is perfect for Ocean’s 13 premiere – AutoblogGreen

Psst, Deputy Mayor of London, wanna free BMW Hydrogen 7 ?

Hydrogen Madness @ NY Auto Show | ecorazzi.com :: the latest in green gossip

Honda’s FCX makes European debut – AutoblogGreen

Canada To Build Hydrogen Super Highway

California Hydrogen Highway Spans 800 Miles

Quantum’s Hydrogen Prius at Norsk Hydro’s first hydrogen station – AutoblogGreen

* Energy self-sufficient Danish community makes hydrogen using wind power

Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies

Smelling Land: The hydrogen defense against climate catastrophy

H2.ca – Hydrogen Strategy for Canada

Powell’s Books – Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil Addiction by Terry Tamminen

Powell’s Books – It’s the Crude, Dude: Greed, Gas, War, and the American Way by Linda Mcquaig

Powell’s Books – The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth by Tim Flannery

Powell’s Books – The Party’s Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies by Richard Heinberg

Winning the Oil Endgame

Amazon.com: The Hydrogen Economy: Books: Jeremy Rifkin

Amazon.com: Tomorrow’s Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet: Books: Peter Hoffmann,Tom Harkin

Amazon.com: Amory B. Lovins: Building the hydrogen economy. (Conversations).: An article from: E: Books: Jim Motavalli

Amazon.com: The Solar Hydrogen Civilization: The Future of Energy Is the Future of Our Global Economy: Books: Roy McAlister

Readings: hydrogen economy course – UC Davis: Institute of Transportation Studies

Search this blog: “green cars”……there’s tons more info here.

Posted in alternative, bicycle, bike, biodiesel, biofuel, car co-op, car sharing, carbon, economy, electric car, ethanol, fuel cell, global warming, green car, hybrid, hydrogen, renewable, sustainability, tesla on February 7, 2007 by jtoddring

Baby Steps and Big Leaps:

Greener cars are here

The Best:

Neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV’s)

Most people drive within a radius of less than 30km. Most trips are in-town. If you only go out of town once or twice a month, you can save a lot of money and reduce your environmental impact and greenhouse gas emissions by buying an NEV to use for 90% of your trips, and renting a car or taking the bus or train for out of town trips. There are a number of cute, quiet, fun and practical NEV’s available, and they’re pretty affordable: $10-16 USD. You just plug them in when you go home at night. Electricity costs far less than gas, so you save big time.

Ideally, you have converted your home to be off-grid, powered by wind and solar, so there are no greenhouse gas emissions and no smog created from dirty coal-fired power plants that recharge your batteries. To do this you’d need $15-20k or so, depending on your power consumption. You would then have a truly zero emission car, and no energy bills or gas costs. Think of that at your next $40 fill-up at the gas station. 5,000 to 15,000 lbs (2,000 to 7,000 kg) of carbon dioxide emitted per year by the average petro-dependent car. Another 10,000 to 15,000 lbs a year of CO2 emissions from your home heating and electricity needs. Or, a $40k investment to wipe out your home and car CO2 emissions, and free yourself from gas and energy bills forever. Hm. Smart investment – in your future, and the future of all life on earth.

If your average heat and electricity bills come to a total of $250 a month, and you spend an average of $150 a month on gas for your conventional car or truck, it would take 100 months, or 8.3 years to recoup your investment, after which time you would be saving $400 a month. Over the span of 20 years, you would therefore save yourself $56,000! And that’s if gas and energy prices don’t go up – which of course they will. Is this a no-brainer or what? Of course, you have to have the cash to do this, or else take out a loan. For those who can, it only makes sense: financially as well as ecologically. You can make a higher return on investment in other ways, but ethically, this is a true win-win situation, others likely are not.

Zenn:

Zero emission, no noise vehicle – from a new Canadian car company, based in Toronto.

ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

ZENN Savings Calculator

Zap!

The only electric car presently available in the U.S.

ZAP

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Sedan

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Pick Up

Xebra Xero

ZAPTruck XL


Reva

A great little electric car from India.

Reva worldwide

REVA photo gallery

G-Wiz

World’s best-selling electric car. Very cute 4-seater hatchback.

G-Wiz electric car

G-Wiz testimonials – GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Where to buy them:

In Canada
ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

U.S.
ZAP

Europe
about GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Soon to arrive:

Electric cars that can take to the highway

The Tesla Roadster

A car that will prove the compatibility of electric vehicles with style, performance and power. An expensive top-end sports car that will open the door for the company to produce more affordable cars in the future. Release date: expected 2008 or 2009.
Mechanical Resonance: The Tesla Motors Press Intro, Complete With Governator – Jalopnik

Video of the Tesla Roadster testing on ice! (ok, you have to really love cars to appreciate this)

The Chevy Volt

Hopefully an affordable highway-ready electric car. Release date unknown. Hopefully 2009.
Detroit Auto Show: It’s here. GM’s plug-in hybrid is the Chevy Volt Concept – AutoblogGreen

Second-best:

The hybrids

The Prius still takes the prize, but it’s good to see more choices available.
Compare Hybrid Cars

Hybrid SUV’s sound like a bad joke, but if you must haul your ass in nearly 4,000 Lbs of glass and steel, you might as well make that pig at least somewhat efficient.
Compare Hybrid SUVs

Can’t forget the Smart car!

Smart Shows Diesel and Gasoline Hybrids, EV and CNG Prototypes of smart Car

Bio-Fuel Babies:

Not the ultimate in green fuel cars, but a step ahead at least

Ford Focus Flexi-Fuel
Green-Car-Guide.com

Saab 9-5 Turbo BioPower
Green-Car-Guide.com

And the coolest little cars I’ve ever seen: Obvio !
OBVIO !

Obvio ! model 828 specs

Obvio 012

One concept car – production date unknown:
Lotus Exige 265E
Road Test: Lotus Exige 265E

The Bio-Fuel Option:

Bio-fuel is not a panacea, nor an ultimate answer, but it is a step, a step in the right direction, and for that reason, it is highly valuable as a technology. Bio-fuel from ethanol produces 70% less greenhouse gas emissions than gas or diesel, and cuts our dependence on oil. For these reasons, it should be pursued vigourously. It should be one facet of a multi-faceted strategy to cut our greenhouse gas emissions, to move in the direction of genuine sustainability, and to reduce and ultimately eliminate our dependence on oil.

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

Brazil has just announced an investment of USD $8.4 billion (that’s billion, not million) over the next four years in bio-fuels – 77 new ethanol mills and 46 new biodiesel plants. Canada?

The Chinese government is not stupid. The world is running out of cheap oil. They know this, and are taking steps to secure their energy resources for the coming years and decades. While they are busy signing contracts, making investments and forming economic and military alliances to secure their access to the world’s remaining oil reserves, they are also busy diversifying their energy resources. China recently invested $350 million to build two giant bio-fuel ethanol plants in Sweden, to make bio-fuel from forest waste. As the Swedish Environment Minister has said, in a country that is 60% forest-covered, bio-fuel from forestry waste makes obvious sense.

Canada should join the 21st century and stop subsidizing oil companies, and start heavily investing in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste.

We have among the largest remaining forests in the world, and if we practice sustained yield forestry, we will have for decades and generations to come. With all this foretry activity however, comes a huge waste issue. Only 30% of the wood cut in a typical forestry operation is used; 70% is waste. 70% of the cut wood is either burned as slash – a ridiculous thing to do as it releases enormous quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere, compounding our global warming problems – or is left to rot, which also compounds global warming as the rotting wood releases methane gas, another greenhouse gas. What makes sense is to turn that waste into ethanol. This is already being done, and bravo to those involved. But it needs to be accelerated and expanded many fold.

We have entire communities in Canada – many of them – that are almost entirely dependent upon the forestry industry. Many of these communities are struggling: job losses, economic decay, social decay, loss of hope, despair – not a pretty sight. The answer, along with value-added forestry industry development, is bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste. Jobs, prosperity, community economic recovery and strengthening, thriving, vibrant communities – and a cleaner, greener, renewable fuel system for our country. We should be dong this now. Take the $4 billion the former Liberal government was going to give away to big corporations as a measure of the money our federal government throws away. With just a quarter of this amount, we could quickly develop one of the world’s leading bio-fuel industries, with economic benefits to Canadians, jobs, and huge environmental benefits. Sweden is showing how an economy can be retooled to make it not just more environmentally sustainable, but also to shift its entire economic base toward environmental technologies. Here in Canada we can take the lead, or we can live in the last century.

Ultimately, we would want to shift the newly developed bio-fuel ethanol industry, based on forestry waste, to a full hydrogen system. By burning bio-fuel ethanol in vehicles we reduce emissions and oil dependency, but emissions are still there. By investing first in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste, then later re-investing to shift to hydrogen production, we can make this a zero-emission fuel and energy system. The investment needed for this second phase would be large, but the economic as well as environmental benefits would be great. Solar, wind and tidal powered steam reformation is the technology that will take us from leading edge bio-fuel ethanol, to the ultimate: zero emission hydrogen from clean, renewable sources.

Cars are now being produced that can run on either gasoline or bio-fuel ethanol, depending on fuel availability. This is the transition technology. The ideal fuel source is described above. Add to this technology mix the dual-fuel hydrogen system demonstrated by BMW. BMW’s Hydrogen 7 can run on either hydrogen or gasoline, depending on fuel availability. Thus we now have the technology to have cars that will run on gasoline, bio-fuel ethanol, or hydrogen, depending on fuel availability. This technology will take us the rest of the way. We can then move seamlessly from oil-dependent smog-belching resource-depleting conventional gas and diesel automobiles, to bio-fuel, to hydrogen. From worst, to better to best.

Bio-diesel deserves mentioning, though it does not have the same benefits as bio-fuel ethanol. Bio-diesel is basically vegetable oil run through a conventional diesel engine. It burns cleaner, reducing engine wear as well as emissions. It is also a non-fossil fuel energy source that can help free us from oil dependency. But it does come from food crops, and this is its weakness. You can’t both feed the planet, and fuel your car with bio-diesel – there simply isn’t enough farmland. So bio-diesel makes sense, in that it will be a temporary measure, a stop-gap, a transition technology that helps us get from high carbon, high greenhouse gas emissions, and oil dependency, to a low carbon, low emission, oil-free society. It does not however, deserve to be our primary strategy, or anything close. It should be funded massively, to switch existing diesel engines to something that at least is a little better. But it will have to be a technology that exists along side electric vehicles, bio-fuel ethanol and hydrogen, all of which will be and should be more primary and far more predominant.

Bo-diesel from waste oil is highly praised in environmental circles, but it is a tiny niche only, not a mass-application: there simply isn’t enough waste oil to fuel even a small fraction of the automobiles on the planet. It’s great for a few people, but not an answer for a society.

Sweden‘s example:

“Using energy more efficiently and in particular reducing dependency on oil is critical…Sweden has used economic instruments for decades – and in particular a carbon dioxide tax since 1991. Biofuels are exempt. The effect has been significant….In a country where 60 per cent of the territory is covered by forests biofuels is an obvious choice. This will also generate more jobs, especially in the north and in the rural areas.

[Swedish] Parliament has passed a Government Bill to increase public access to renewable fuels. Under the new legislation, all large petrol stations in Sweden must offer renewable motor fuels, such as biogas or ethanol.

Sweden’s national policy on the promotion of biofuels also include tax relief on environment-friendly fuels and cars along with subsidies for the production of biofuels. Subsidies are also available for local incentives such as reduced parking fees and car parks dedicated exclusively to biofuel vehicles.

However, today’s challenges represent tomorrow’s opportunities – if we use them!

The Swedish government sees environmental technologies as an important sector for economic development and growth. According to Statistics Sweden, the environment sector in our country has annual sales of approximately 35.3 billion US dollars and employs some 90 000 people. The Swedish Environmental Technology Council has a database comprising more than 1 600 companies that are working in the sector. Bear in mind that Sweden only has 9 million inhabitants. So it is reasonable to say that environmental technology is currently one of most important sectors in Sweden.

Today we are focusing our attention on biogas and its potential.”

– Minister for the Environment, Sweden

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

China invests in Swedish bioenergy

Swedish biofuel sales grow 270% in 2006

Making Sweden an OIL-FREE Society

Nordic Countries Design Sustainable Communities: The Natural Step for Eco-Villages

Portugal wants 45% renewable electricity output and 10% of all fuels to be biofuels

Renewable Energy World – Renewables global status update: Investment and capacity soar while support policies continue to multiply

BBC NEWS | Business | Biofuel raises global dilemmas

BBC NEWS | Business | Car firms and investors greet UK biofuel

Bioenergy pact between Europe and Africa

Wisconsin shooting for leadership in energy independence – AutoblogGreen

Inside Greentech is hosting a live web seminar examining cellulosic ethanol technologies in April – sign up now

Editorial: Thoughts on the performance and potential of ethanol – AutoblogGreen

Venture Capital jumps into the lobbying game for alternative fuels – AutoblogGreen

***Virgin Group pledges $3 billion to fight global warming at CGI – AutoblogGreen

Most Honourable Mention:

BMW’s Hydrogen 7

Had we a hydrogen fuel distribution system in place to utilize it, BMW’s Hydrogen 7 would be the cream of the crop. As we are still waiting for such a fuel delivery system, the H7 is honourable, but not yet practical – at least outside of a few places like LA and Silicon Valley.
BMW officially announces the BMW Hydrogen 7 – AutoblogGreen

Honda FCX:

First hydrogen fuel cell car to be released in 2008.
Hydrogen Wonder – AOL Autos

Hydrogen:

Dream of the future, now.

The nay-sayers can stop the sniping now. Hydrogen is here. It’s safe, it’s proven, and it works. Yes, there are two big remaining questions, but with a modest amount of creative intelligence and the necessary determination, these can be quickly overcome. What hydrogen means, is an alternative to oil addiction, a fuel (an energy carrier to be precise) that, when made from either water or waste using solar, wind or tidal power, is truly clean, green, renewable and sustainable. A hydrogen vehicle emits only water vapour out the tailpipe. And the hydrogen can be made from the two things we have in great abundance on earth: water and waste. (The water is returned to the atmosphere as the car burns the hydrogen, cleanly completing the cycle. And sewage, compost and landfill waste we are not likely to run out of.) Combined with solar, wind and tidal power, hydrogen is, as the president of Ford has recently said, the fuel of the 21st century.

The two big remaining questions for hydrogen are: distribution and source. There is only one place on earth that I know of where a hydrogen distribution system is being built – California. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has committed $100 million to build the world’s first hydrogen highway, with 200 fueling stations down the length of the state. He has also recently announced plans to extend the hydrogen highway to Vancouver, B.C. in Canada, and south into Mexico.

This, of course, is what Canada should be doing as well. When the former Liberal government was willing to give away $4 billion in additional tax breaks to big, profitable corporations, clearly we can afford to build a trans-Canada hydrogen highway. As a start, we would need a hydrogen fueling station every 100 miles across the 4,000 mile stretch coast to coast. At half a million dollars each (USD) that would be 40 stations costing USD $20 million, or $24 million CDN. Throw in another half million per station and we could make the hydrogen on-site, with solar and wind powered electrolysis hydrogen generation systems, or where water is scarce, with steam reformation of biogas – gas produced naturally from sewage, compost or landfills.

$50 million for a clean, green, sustainable trans-Canada hydrogen highway. With the equivalent of the Liberals’ $4 billion corporate give-away we could build such a hydrogen infrastructure 20 times over. What the hell are we waiting for? Obviously, no political party has yet to come to power in Canada with sufficient balls or brains, or such a vision would by now be a reality. Let’s put the pressure on to make it happen. This should be a project we get behind and get excited about – something on the scale of the historic trans-Canada rail line, but arguably far more important.

The second big question regarding hydrogen is the source of the fuel. If we let the oil companies control the coming hydrogen economy, they’re going to want to make hydrogen from natural gas – of course, since it would mean they stay in the game, and get high profits from polluting methods of hydrogen fuel generation. What would be infinitely smarter, would be to generate the hydrogen from solar, wind and/or tidal power, either from water, by electrolysis, or where water supplies are limited, from sewage, compost or landfill gas. Every city, town and county can thereby be energy self-sufficient, assuming some serious efforts are made at energy conservation and efficiency. We would then tell the big oil companies to take a hike.

Yes, generating hydrogen from electrolysis, from water, is energy inefficient, but with abundant solar, wind and tidal power, that is not a problem. Slaughter in the Middle East for oil is not a very feasible alternative, if we are at all still alive to our humanity, nor are the unending greenhouse gas emissions a viable option. Electric vehicles have their own inefficiencies, especially if they are plugged into a highly polluting energy grid that itself operates with very low rates of energy efficiency. Biodiesel makes sense, reducing oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions, but turning crops into fuel while millions starve, is not all that ethical, one would have to admit. Biofuel ethanol spells the same thing, at least when the ethanol is produced from cropland. If it is produced from waste – such as forest waste – then it makes sense, but there will still need to be a number of technologies developed and implemented in order to wean ourselves off gas and oil as quickly as possible. Hybrids are great, but they’re still petrol-burners, and as such are not sufficient in themselves. They are a step in the right direction, not the ultimate answer. Now a flexi-fuel hybrid that can run on whatever fuel is available – gas, biofuel ethanol or hydrogen – backed by an electric hybrid system, would be the best possible transition system. One way or another, we have to get from an oil-dependent, carbon-heavy, highly wasteful, highly polluting society, to one that is clean green, low carbon and sustainable. Hydrogen is one technology that will help us get there.

All in all, hydrogen from electrolysis – from water – or from waste – municipal sewage, compost or landfill gas – makes very good sense, so long as the hydrogen generation systems are powered by truly clean, green renewable energy. We are talking about an energy revolution if we make this happen. No more monopolies over world energy supplies: community controlled energy sources. This is a social revolution, not just an ecological one. Control over energy means control in society. If big corporations control the energy that runs our society, then they control the levers of power. If communities control their own energy supplies, then they control their own fate. They are not pawns, spectators, cogs or consumers alone. Communities and individuals become empowered when control over energy is decentralized, brought down to earth. Hydrogen fuel, when combined with distributed generation that is in the hands of communities, powered by wind, water and solar, is a social revolution.

Whether we are talking about electric cars, bio-fuel cars or hydrogen cars, the source of the fuel is critical. Electric cars powered by coal plants is unsustainable. Bio-fuel cars powered by food crops is unethical and unfeasible on a global scale. Hydrogen cars fueled by natural gas-derived hydrogen would be a red herring. But all three are feasible and ecologically superior to petroleum if done with some forethought and clear-headedness.

Yes, electrolysis and stream reformation production of hydrogen are both low-efficiency processes, but with abundant solar, wind or tidal power that really becomes a non-issue. We are ultimately storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen, which is a very convenient storage medium, and the power ultimately comes from the wind, water or sun. It should be remembered that the entire electric grid is grossly inefficient, from generating plant to transmission towers, and so too are gasoline and diesel cars terribly inefficient. The gas or diesel car utilizes only 15-20% of the energy of its fuel to move the car; the rest is lost in heat and friction. (And this does not include the enormous energy consumption and inefficiencies involved in the exploration, extraction, shipping and refining of the oil.) That’s not terribly efficient, and the electrical power grid runs at similar gross inefficiencies. So harping about the inefficiency of hydrogen production is not particularly appropriate or relevant, considering all of the above. The relevant question is one of cost, but that is one we have to suck up and subsidize, in order to create the needed infrastructure. Once we have built the infrastructure, the hydrogen generation and distribution network, using renewable energy sources, we have essentially free fuel. Pay now, or pay later. If we pay now, and invest in this smart technology, the fuel of the 21st century, we can save ourselves a lot of pain, in terms of environmental crisis, oil dependency, resource wars and global warming; and we can also reap economic rewards by becoming world leaders in leading edge environmental technologies.

And yes, hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source – just as batteries in an electric car are an energy carrier, not an energy source. So what? The point is, hydrogen can be produced sustainably, cleanly and from renewable energy sources – using solar, wind and tidal power – just as electric cars can be powered by the same clean, green energies. Problem…? (In fact, storing energy for an electric vehicle can be accomplished either through batteries or with hydrogen fuel cells. The fuel cells operate as energy carriers just as the batteries do, only with potentially fewer disposal problems – battery disposal is an issue in itself. )I’d rather drive a BMW Hydrogen 7, powered by my own at home electrolysis unit, which in turn runs on off-grid clean solar and wind power, than run an electric car that sucks up its juice from a coal fired power plant – to make the comparison of energy sources clear. It makes a difference where the energy comes from, yes, and this applies equally to electric and hydrogen cars. Both are zero emission vehicles, and both require some energy source to run them. More nuke plants and coal plants to juice those millions of electric cars, would be a nightmare, just as hydrogen cars running on fuel made from natural gas would be stupid and unecological. But nobody in their right mind – outside the nuke lobby – is advocating more nuke plants, when we still don’t have a clue as to how to safely dispose of radioactive waste that has a half-life of a hundred thousand years; and no-one in their right mind would advocate more coal plants. We do have options. Bio-fuels make sense, particularly when the source used for producing it is carefully chosen. Electric (EV) and hydrogen cars both make sense, but are only at their best under certain very specific conditions. For EV’s, the power should ultimately come from clean, renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or tidal power. Exactly the same is true for hydrogen. And both are viable – right now. The problem with hydrogen is simply, will we do it? Will we cough up the investment for the needed fuel distribution infrastructure? We could build it in less than a year if we wanted to, and it wouldn’t cost that much. The trouble is, big oil has more clout in the capitals of Canada, the U.S. and Britain than brains have sway – as with many other nations. I hope this changes soon. The technology is ready, but are we? What in hell are we waiting for?


Hydrogen is happening:


Cutting through the fog – and the smog


ITS Hydrogen Highway Launch Event

British Columbia’s own Hydrogen Highway | Hydrogen Use

Hydrogen Bus Demonstration Completed In Manitoba, Partners Invest $600,000 In Technology

Hydrogen fuel station in Sweden…. ConocoPhillips buys E-Gas patents … fuel cell water taxi Diesel Progress North American Edition – Find Articles

Berlin, Shanghai and Amsterdam unveil hydrogen buses

London Hydrogen Action Plan

London Hydrogen Partnership – Peugeot

H2.ca – Hydrogen Water Taxi in Newport Harbor

BBC News | SCI/TECH | Iceland launches energy revolution

BMW’s hydrogen powered 7-Series

BBC NEWS Science-Nature Sun and hydrogen ‘to fuel future’

Canadian Group Produces Hydrogen from Water Using Solar Energy

SHEC Labs achieved breakthrough performance in manufacturing …

Sunlight Used To Produce Hydrogen From Water

US legislator wants to reward hydrogen inventors

Growing hydrogen for the cars of tomorrow – energy-fuels – 25 February 2006 – New Scientist

Treehugger Garbage to Hydrogen, Just Add Sun

Sewage turned into hydrogen fuel – 29 April 2002 – New Scientist

Nanotubes crank out hydrogen TRN 020905

Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Transports Inauguration Guests

EERC Demonstrates Hydrogen Production at Ethanol Facilities

NHA Renewables to Hydrogen Forum

Wal-Mart Completes Test of Fuel-Cell Pallet Trucks

H2 on-site refueling system – Nuvera to Provide PowerTap Hydrogen Refueling System

Green Car Congress: Two Dutch Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles: NEV and Scooter

Canadian zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell bus

‘The Future of Racing’ Unveiled to Auto Industry Leaders and Motorsport Dignitaries in Detroit

California’s 2007 Guidelines for Renewable Energy Rebates, Including Fuel Cells

The Accept H2 Project: An international study funded by the European Commission

The US and Europe Getting Down to Business – Implementation of the Hydrogen Economy

Beyond Batteries: Portable Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

Another option:

Don’t own, share

The Benefits of Car-Sharing – Co-operative Auto Network

Where can you find Car Sharing in North America

@World Car Share Consortium

Carsharing.ca

Car Sharing News

Zipcar : Green Benefits

AutoShare Toronto – Car Sharing

Vrtucar.com – Ottawa ON

The People’s Car Co-op – Waterloo Ontario

Cooperative Auto Network – Vancouver B.C.

CarSharing Handbook – How to start a car co-op in your community.

Peterborough UK City Council – Car share scheme aims to cut congestion and travel costs

Freewheelers: International Car Share Directory

Other alternatives to cars:

Share a car for occasional use, rent a car for longer trips once in a while, and use transit, train, bus or bike as primary transportation. Before dismissing the notion, take a look at some of the options below.

Cool bikes and electric scooters:

Dynamic Commuter Bike

Gowatt – electric bicycles

Gowatt – Scooter – E-Light

Segway

I gave up my car and saved $16,000

Where can you find this gem? An all-weather bike for $650 USD? Or is there a mistake on the price?
Shirouma Science’s All Weather Bicycle.

HPV’s (Human Powered Vehicles), Velomobiles, Hybrid HPV/EV’s:

The Leitra

Aerorider | Hybrid HPV/Electric Vehicle | Velomobiel

The go-one³

IHPVA velomobile page

North American Velomobilist website

Velomobile USA

The Velomobile Is Comin’ To Town

BentRider Velomobile guide

In search of an all-weather bike | GreenAsh

Green car rentals, airport shuttles and taxis:

The Hertz Green Collection in Europe

PlanetTran – Eco-Friendly Airport Shuttle Service

thegreenguy: Reviewed: ecoigo, London’s newest green taxi service

globeandmail.com: Green cab, clean air, full pockets

Green Car Congress: New Yorkers Want Hybrid Taxis; Taxi Commission Isnt So Sure

Is That a Tinge of Green on New York’s Yellow Cabs? – New York Times

Microcabs: A Bloody Good Idea!: Taxi Cab | Hydrogen Fuel Cell | London, England

Alternative fuels locater & other resources:

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

MapQuest: Find alternative fuels

Oliomap is your Wikimap for biodiesel and VegOil services

Top 12 Greenest and Meanest vehicles of 2007, as defined by ACEEE – AutoblogGreen

Top 100 Green Cars – Yahoo! Autos

Federal and state purchasing incentives

Government Incentives in Canada – Environmental fiscal reform in Canada

Recommendations for Incentives – Green Budget Coalition Canada

35 mpg fuel conservation numbers from the Union of Concerned Scientists

Guess who made $1,252 a second, every second last year?

Alternative Fuel Choices – AOL Autos

Baby Steps and Big Leaps: Greener cars are here

Posted in alternative, bicycle, bike, biodiesel, biofuel, car co-op, car sharing, carbon, economy, electric car, ethanol, fuel cell, global warming, green car, hybrid, hydrogen, renewable, sustainability, tesla on February 7, 2007 by jtoddring

Here is a look at some of the greener cars now available. Also included in this article are extensive links and references regarding various types of greener cars (not at all perfectly green), and various types of greener fuels. A short analysis and overview of some of the green car and green fuel technologies is also included. And, of course, some of the alternatives to private automobiles – the sacred cow of industrial society – are here as well . Have fun! This is a huge collection of resources. And let me know what I’ve forgotten. The subject is too vast to cover thoroughly in just one article, of course – but I tried. 😉

J. Todd Ring

February 2007

*****

The Best:

Neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV’s)

Most people drive within a radius of less than 30km. Most trips are in-town. If you only go out of town once or twice a month, you can save a lot of money and reduce your environmental impact and greenhouse gas emissions by buying an NEV to use for 90% of your trips, and renting a car or taking the bus or train for out of town trips. There are a number of cute, quiet, fun and practical NEV’s available, and they’re pretty affordable: $10-16 USD. You just plug them in when you go home at night. Electricity costs far less than gas, so you save big time.

Ideally, you have converted your home to be off-grid, powered by wind and solar, so there are no greenhouse gas emissions and no smog created from dirty coal-fired power plants that recharge your batteries. To do this you’d need $15-20k or so, depending on your power consumption. You would then have a truly zero emission car, and no energy bills or gas costs. Think of that at your next $40 fill-up at the gas station. 5,000 to 15,000 lbs (2,000 to 7,000 kg) of carbon dioxide emitted per year by the average petro-dependent car. Another 10,000 to 15,000 lbs a year of CO2 emissions from your home heating and electricity needs. Or, a $40k investment to wipe out your home and car CO2 emissions, and free yourself from gas and energy bills forever. Hm. Smart investment – in your future, and the future of all life on earth.

If your average heat and electricity bills come to a total of $250 a month, and you spend an average of $150 a month on gas for your conventional car or truck, it would take 100 months, or 8.3 years to recoup your investment, after which time you would be saving $400 a month. Over the span of 20 years, you would therefore save yourself $56,000! And that’s if gas and energy prices don’t go up – which of course they will. Is this a no-brainer or what? Of course, you have to have the cash to do this, or else take out a loan. For those who can, it only makes sense: financially as well as ecologically. You can make a higher return on investment in other ways, but ethically, this is a true win-win situation, others likely are not.

Zenn:

Zero emission, no noise vehicle – from a new Canadian car company, based in Toronto.

ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

ZENN Savings Calculator

Zap!

The only electric car presently available in the U.S.

ZAP

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Sedan

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Pick Up

Xebra Xero

ZAPTruck XL


Reva

A great little electric car from India.

Reva worldwide

REVA photo gallery

G-Wiz

World’s best-selling electric car. Very cute 4-seater hatchback.

G-Wiz electric car

G-Wiz testimonials – GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

*****

Where to buy them:

In Canada
ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

U.S.
ZAP

Europe
about GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

*****

Soon to arrive:

Electric cars that can take to the highway

The Tesla Roadster

A car that will prove the compatibility of electric vehicles with style, performance and power. An expensive top-end sports car that will open the door for the company to produce more affordable cars in the future. Release date: expected 2008 or 2009.
Mechanical Resonance: The Tesla Motors Press Intro, Complete With Governator – Jalopnik

Video of the Tesla Roadster testing on ice! (ok, you have to really love cars to appreciate this)

The Chevy Volt

Hopefully an affordable highway-ready electric car. Release date unknown. Hopefully 2009.
Detroit Auto Show: It’s here. GM’s plug-in hybrid is the Chevy Volt Concept – AutoblogGreen

*****

Second-best:

The hybrids

The Prius still takes the prize, but it’s good to see more choices available.
Compare Hybrid Cars

Hybrid SUV’s sound like a bad joke, but if you must haul your ass in nearly 4,000 Lbs of glass and steel, you might as well make that pig at least somewhat efficient.
Compare Hybrid SUVs

*****

Can’t forget the Smart car!

Smart Shows Diesel and Gasoline Hybrids, EV and CNG Prototypes of smart Car

*****

Bio-Fuel Babies:

Not the ultimate in green fuel cars, but arguably a step ahead at least

Ford Focus Flexi-Fuel
Green-Car-Guide.com

Saab 9-5 Turbo BioPower
Green-Car-Guide.com

And the coolest little cars I’ve ever seen: Obvio !
OBVIO !

Obvio ! model 828 specs

Obvio 012

One concept car – production date unknown:
Lotus Exige 265E
Road Test: Lotus Exige 265E

*****

The Bio-Fuel Option:

Bio-fuel is not a panacea, nor an ultimate answer, but it is a step, a step in the right direction, and for that reason, it is highly valuable as a technology. Bio-fuel from ethanol produces 70% less greenhouse gas emissions than gas or diesel, and cuts our dependence on oil. For these reasons, it should be pursued vigourously. It should be one facet of a multi-faceted strategy to cut our greenhouse gas emissions, to move in the direction of genuine sustainability, and to reduce and ultimately eliminate our dependence on oil.

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

Brazil has just announced an investment of USD $8.4 billion (that’s billion, not million) over the next four years in bio-fuels – 77 new ethanol mills and 46 new biodiesel plants. Canada?

The Chinese government is not stupid. The world is running out of cheap oil. They know this, and are taking steps to secure their energy resources for the coming years and decades. While they are busy signing contracts, making investments and forming economic and military alliances to secure their access to the world’s remaining oil reserves, they are also busy diversifying their energy resources. China recently invested $350 million to build two giant bio-fuel ethanol plants in Sweden, to make bio-fuel from forest waste. As the Swedish Environment Minister has said, in a country that is 60% forest-covered, bio-fuel from forestry waste makes obvious sense.

Canada should join the 21st century and stop subsidizing oil companies, and start heavily investing in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste.

We have among the largest remaining forests in the world, and if we practice sustained yield forestry, we will have for decades and generations to come. With all this foretry activity however, comes a huge waste issue. Only 30% of the wood cut in a typical forestry operation is used; 70% is waste. 70% of the cut wood is either burned as slash – a ridiculous thing to do as it releases enormous quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere, compounding our global warming problems – or is left to rot, which also compounds global warming as the rotting wood releases methane gas, another greenhouse gas. What makes sense is to turn that waste into ethanol. This is already being done, and bravo to those involved. But it needs to be accelerated and expanded many fold.

We have entire communities in Canada – many of them – that are almost entirely dependent upon the forestry industry. Many of these communities are struggling: job losses, economic decay, social decay, loss of hope, despair – not a pretty sight. The answer, along with value-added forestry industry development, is bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste. Jobs, prosperity, community economic recovery and strengthening, thriving, vibrant communities – and a cleaner, greener, renewable fuel system for our country. We should be dong this now. Take the $4 billion the former Liberal government was going to give away to big corporations as a measure of the money our federal government throws away. With just a quarter of this amount, we could quickly develop one of the world’s leading bio-fuel industries, with economic benefits to Canadians, jobs, and huge environmental benefits. Sweden is showing how an economy can be retooled to make it not just more environmentally sustainable, but also to shift its entire economic base toward environmental technologies. Here in Canada we can take the lead, or we can live in the last century.

Ultimately, we would want to shift the newly developed bio-fuel ethanol industry, based on forestry waste, to a full hydrogen system. By burning bio-fuel ethanol in vehicles we reduce emissions and oil dependency, but emissions are still there. By investing first in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste, then later re-investing to shift to hydrogen production, we can make this a zero-emission fuel and energy system. The investment needed for this second phase would be large, but the economic as well as environmental benefits would be great. Solar, wind and tidal powered steam reformation is the technology that will take us from leading edge bio-fuel ethanol, to the ultimate: zero emission hydrogen from clean, renewable sources.

Cars are now being produced that can run on either gasoline or bio-fuel ethanol, depending on fuel availability. This is the transition technology. The ideal fuel source is described above. Add to this technology mix the dual-fuel hydrogen system demonstrated by BMW. BMW’s Hydrogen 7 can run on either hydrogen or gasoline, depending on fuel availability. Thus we now have the technology to have cars that will run on gasoline, bio-fuel ethanol, or hydrogen, depending on fuel availability. This technology will take us the rest of the way. We can then move seamlessly from oil-dependent smog-belching resource-depleting conventional gas and diesel automobiles, to bio-fuel, to hydrogen. From worst, to better to best.

Bio-diesel deserves mentioning, though it does not have the same benefits as bio-fuel ethanol. Bio-diesel is basically vegetable oil run through a conventional diesel engine. It burns cleaner, reducing engine wear as well as emissions. It is also a non-fossil fuel energy source that can help free us from oil dependency. But it does come from food crops, and this is its weakness. You can’t both feed the planet, and fuel your car with bio-diesel – there simply isn’t enough farmland. So bio-diesel makes sense, in that it will be a temporary measure, a stop-gap, a transition technology that helps us get from high carbon, high greenhouse gas emissions, and oil dependency, to a low carbon, low emission, oil-free society. It does not however, deserve to be our primary strategy, or anything close. It should be funded massively, to switch existing diesel engines to something that at least is a little better. But it will have to be a technology that exists along side electric vehicles, bio-fuel ethanol and hydrogen, all of which will be and should be more primary and far more predominant.

Bo-diesel from waste oil is highly praised in environmental circles, but it is a tiny niche only, not a mass-application: there simply isn’t enough waste oil to fuel even a small fraction of the automobiles on the planet. It’s great for a few people, but not an answer for a society.

Sweden‘s example:

“Using energy more efficiently and in particular reducing dependency on oil is critical…Sweden has used economic instruments for decades – and in particular a carbon dioxide tax since 1991. Biofuels are exempt. The effect has been significant….In a country where 60 per cent of the territory is covered by forests biofuels is an obvious choice. This will also generate more jobs, especially in the north and in the rural areas.

[Swedish] Parliament has passed a Government Bill to increase public access to renewable fuels. Under the new legislation, all large petrol stations in Sweden must offer renewable motor fuels, such as biogas or ethanol.

Sweden’s national policy on the promotion of biofuels also include tax relief on environment-friendly fuels and cars along with subsidies for the production of biofuels. Subsidies are also available for local incentives such as reduced parking fees and car parks dedicated exclusively to biofuel vehicles.

However, today’s challenges represent tomorrow’s opportunities – if we use them!

The Swedish government sees environmental technologies as an important sector for economic development and growth. According to Statistics Sweden, the environment sector in our country has annual sales of approximately 35.3 billion US dollars and employs some 90 000 people. The Swedish Environmental Technology Council has a database comprising more than 1 600 companies that are working in the sector. Bear in mind that Sweden only has 9 million inhabitants. So it is reasonable to say that environmental technology is currently one of most important sectors in Sweden.

Today we are focusing our attention on biogas and its potential.”

– Minister for the Environment, Sweden

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

 

China invests in Swedish bioenergy

Swedish biofuel sales grow 270% in 2006

Making Sweden an OIL-FREE Society

Nordic Countries Design Sustainable Communities: The Natural Step for Eco-Villages

Portugal wants 45% renewable electricity output and 10% of all fuels to be biofuels

Renewable Energy World – Renewables global status update: Investment and capacity soar while support policies continue to multiply

BBC NEWS | Business | Biofuel raises global dilemmas

BBC NEWS | Business | Car firms and investors greet UK biofuel

Bioenergy pact between Europe and Africa

Wisconsin shooting for leadership in energy independence – AutoblogGreen

Inside Greentech is hosting a live web seminar examining cellulosic ethanol technologies in April – sign up now

Editorial: Thoughts on the performance and potential of ethanol – AutoblogGreen

Venture Capital jumps into the lobbying game for alternative fuels – AutoblogGreen

***Virgin Group pledges $3 billion to fight global warming at CGI – AutoblogGreen

*****

Most Honourable Mention:

BMW’s Hydrogen 7

Had we a hydrogen fuel distribution system in place to utilize it, BMW’s Hydrogen 7 would be the cream of the crop. As we are still waiting for such a fuel delivery system, the H7 is honourable, but not yet practical – at least outside of a few places like LA and Silicon Valley.
BMW officially announces the BMW Hydrogen 7 – AutoblogGreen

Honda FCX:

First hydrogen fuel cell car to be released in 2008.
Hydrogen Wonder – AOL Autos

*****

Hydrogen:

Dream of the future, now.

The nay-sayers can stop the sniping now. Hydrogen is here. It’s safe, it’s proven, and it works. Yes, there are two big remaining questions, but with a modest amount of creative intelligence and the necessary determination, these can be quickly overcome. What hydrogen means, is an alternative to oil addiction, a fuel (an energy carrier to be precise) that, when made from either water or waste using solar, wind or tidal power, is truly clean, green, renewable and sustainable. A hydrogen vehicle emits only water vapour out the tailpipe. And the hydrogen can be made from the two things we have in great abundance on earth: water and waste. (The water is returned to the atmosphere as the car burns the hydrogen, cleanly completing the cycle. And sewage, compost and landfill waste we are not likely to run out of.) Combined with solar, wind and tidal power, hydrogen is, as the president of Ford has recently said, the fuel of the 21st century.

The two big remaining questions for hydrogen are: distribution and source. There is only one place on earth that I know of where a hydrogen distribution system is being built – California. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has committed $100 million to build the world’s first hydrogen highway, with 200 fueling stations down the length of the state. He has also recently announced plans to extend the hydrogen highway to Vancouver, B.C. in Canada, and south into Mexico.

This, of course, is what Canada should be doing as well. When the former Liberal government was willing to give away $4 billion in additional tax breaks to big, profitable corporations, clearly we can afford to build a trans-Canada hydrogen highway. As a start, we would need a hydrogen fueling station every 100 miles across the 4,000 mile stretch coast to coast. At half a million dollars each (USD) that would be 40 stations costing USD $20 million, or $24 million CDN. Throw in another half million per station and we could make the hydrogen on-site, with solar and wind powered electrolysis hydrogen generation systems, or where water is scarce, with steam reformation of biogas – gas produced naturally from sewage, compost or landfills.

$50 million for a clean, green, sustainable trans-Canada hydrogen highway. With the equivalent of the Liberals’ $4 billion corporate give-away we could build such a hydrogen infrastructure 20 times over. What the hell are we waiting for? Obviously, no political party has yet to come to power in Canada with sufficient balls or brains, or such a vision would by now be a reality. Let’s put the pressure on to make it happen. This should be a project we get behind and get excited about – something on the scale of the historic trans-Canada rail line, but arguably far more important.

The second big question regarding hydrogen is the source of the fuel. If we let the oil companies control the coming hydrogen economy, they’re going to want to make hydrogen from natural gas – of course, since it would mean they stay in the game, and get high profits from polluting methods of hydrogen fuel generation. What would be infinitely smarter, would be to generate the hydrogen from solar, wind and/or tidal power, either from water, by electrolysis, or where water supplies are limited, from sewage, compost or landfill gas. Every city, town and county can thereby be energy self-sufficient, assuming some serious efforts are made at energy conservation and efficiency. We would then tell the big oil companies to take a hike.

Yes, generating hydrogen from electrolysis, from water, is energy inefficient, but with abundant solar, wind and tidal power, that is not a problem. Slaughter in the Middle East for oil is not a very feasible alternative, if we are at all still alive to our humanity, nor are the unending greenhouse gas emissions a viable option. Electric vehicles have their own inefficiencies, especially if they are plugged into a highly polluting energy grid that itself operates with very low rates of energy efficiency. Biodiesel makes sense, reducing oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions, but turning crops into fuel while millions starve, is not all that ethical, one would have to admit. Biofuel ethanol spells the same thing, at least when the ethanol is produced from cropland. If it is produced from waste – such as forest waste – then it makes sense, but there will still need to be a number of technologies developed and implemented in order to wean ourselves off gas and oil as quickly as possible. Hybrids are great, but they’re still petrol-burners, and as such are not sufficient in themselves. They are a step in the right direction, not the ultimate answer. Now a flexi-fuel hybrid that can run on whatever fuel is available – gas, biofuel ethanol or hydrogen – backed by an electric hybrid system, would be the best possible transition system. One way or another, we have to get from an oil-dependent, carbon-heavy, highly wasteful, highly polluting society, to one that is clean green, low carbon and sustainable. Hydrogen is one technology that will help us get there.

All in all, hydrogen from electrolysis – from water – or from waste – municipal sewage, compost or landfill gas – makes very good sense, so long as the hydrogen generation systems are powered by truly clean, green renewable energy. We are talking about an energy revolution if we make this happen. No more monopolies over world energy supplies: community controlled energy sources. This is a social revolution, not just an ecological one. Control over energy means control in society. If big corporations control the energy that runs our society, then they control the levers of power. If communities control their own energy supplies, then they control their own fate. They are not pawns, spectators, cogs or consumers alone. Communities and individuals become empowered when control over energy is decentralized, brought down to earth. Hydrogen fuel, when combined with distributed generation that is in the hands of communities, powered by wind, water and solar, is a social revolution.

Whether we are talking about electric cars, bio-fuel cars or hydrogen cars, the source of the fuel is critical. Electric cars powered by coal plants is unsustainable. Bio-fuel cars powered by food crops is unethical and unfeasible on a global scale. Hydrogen cars fueled by natural gas-derived hydrogen would be a red herring. But all three are feasible and ecologically superior to petroleum if done with some forethought and clear-headedness.

Yes, electrolysis and stream reformation production of hydrogen are both low-efficiency processes, but with abundant solar, wind or tidal power that really becomes a non-issue. We are ultimately storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen, which is a very convenient storage medium, and the power ultimately comes from the wind, water or sun. It should be remembered that the entire electric grid is grossly inefficient, from generating plant to transmission towers, and so too are gasoline and diesel cars terribly inefficient. The gas or diesel car utilizes only 15-20% of the energy of its fuel to move the car; the rest is lost in heat and friction. (And this does not include the enormous energy consumption and inefficiencies involved in the exploration, extraction, shipping and refining of the oil.) That’s not terribly efficient, and the electrical power grid runs at similar gross inefficiencies. So harping about the inefficiency of hydrogen production is not particularly appropriate or relevant, considering all of the above. The relevant question is one of cost, but that is one we have to suck up and subsidize, in order to create the needed infrastructure. Once we have built the infrastructure, the hydrogen generation and distribution network, using renewable energy sources, we have essentially free fuel. Pay now, or pay later. If we pay now, and invest in this smart technology, the fuel of the 21st century, we can save ourselves a lot of pain, in terms of environmental crisis, oil dependency, resource wars and global warming; and we can also reap economic rewards by becoming world leaders in leading edge environmental technologies.

And yes, hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source – just as batteries in an electric car are an energy carrier, not an energy source. So what? The point is, hydrogen can be produced sustainably, cleanly and from renewable energy sources – using solar, wind and tidal power – just as electric cars can be powered by the same clean, green energies. Problem…? (In fact, storing energy for an electric vehicle can be accomplished either through batteries or with hydrogen fuel cells. The fuel cells operate as energy carriers just as the batteries do, only with potentially fewer disposal problems – battery disposal is an issue in itself. )I’d rather drive a BMW Hydrogen 7, powered by my own at home electrolysis unit, which in turn runs on off-grid clean solar and wind power, than run an electric car that sucks up its juice from a coal fired power plant – to make the comparison of energy sources clear. It makes a difference where the energy comes from, yes, and this applies equally to electric and hydrogen cars. Both are zero emission vehicles, and both require some energy source to run them. More nuke plants and coal plants to juice those millions of electric cars, would be a nightmare, just as hydrogen cars running on fuel made from natural gas would be stupid and unecological. But nobody in their right mind – outside the nuke lobby – is advocating more nuke plants, when we still don’t have a clue as to how to safely dispose of radioactive waste that has a half-life of a hundred thousand years; and no-one in their right mind would advocate more coal plants. We do have options. Bio-fuels make sense, particularly when the source used for producing it is carefully chosen. Electric (EV) and hydrogen cars both make sense, but are only at their best under certain very specific conditions. For EV’s, the power should ultimately come from clean, renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or tidal power. Exactly the same is true for hydrogen. And both are viable – right now. The problem with hydrogen is simply, will we do it? Will we cough up the investment for the needed fuel distribution infrastructure? We could build it in less than a year if we wanted to, and it wouldn’t cost that much. The trouble is, big oil has more clout in the capitals of Canada, the U.S. and Britain than brains have sway – as with many other nations. I hope this changes soon. The technology is ready, but are we? What in hell are we waiting for?


Hydrogen is happening:


Cutting through the fog – and the smog


ITS Hydrogen Highway Launch Event

British Columbia’s own Hydrogen Highway | Hydrogen Use

Hydrogen Bus Demonstration Completed In Manitoba, Partners Invest $600,000 In Technology

Hydrogen fuel station in Sweden…. ConocoPhillips buys E-Gas patents … fuel cell water taxi Diesel Progress North American Edition – Find Articles

Berlin, Shanghai and Amsterdam unveil hydrogen buses

London Hydrogen Action Plan

London Hydrogen Partnership – Peugeot

H2.ca – Hydrogen Water Taxi in Newport Harbor

BBC News | SCI/TECH | Iceland launches energy revolution

BMW’s hydrogen powered 7-Series

BBC NEWS Science-Nature Sun and hydrogen ‘to fuel future’

Canadian Group Produces Hydrogen from Water Using Solar Energy

SHEC Labs achieved breakthrough performance in manufacturing …

Sunlight Used To Produce Hydrogen From Water

US legislator wants to reward hydrogen inventors

Growing hydrogen for the cars of tomorrow – energy-fuels – 25 February 2006 – New Scientist

Treehugger Garbage to Hydrogen, Just Add Sun

Sewage turned into hydrogen fuel – 29 April 2002 – New Scientist

Nanotubes crank out hydrogen TRN 020905

Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Transports Inauguration Guests

EERC Demonstrates Hydrogen Production at Ethanol Facilities

NHA Renewables to Hydrogen Forum

Wal-Mart Completes Test of Fuel-Cell Pallet Trucks

H2 on-site refueling system – Nuvera to Provide PowerTap Hydrogen Refueling System

Green Car Congress: Two Dutch Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles: NEV and Scooter

Canadian zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell bus

‘The Future of Racing’ Unveiled to Auto Industry Leaders and Motorsport Dignitaries in Detroit

California’s 2007 Guidelines for Renewable Energy Rebates, Including Fuel Cells

The Accept H2 Project: An international study funded by the European Commission

The US and Europe Getting Down to Business – Implementation of the Hydrogen Economy

Beyond Batteries: Portable Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

*****

Another option:

Don’t own, share

The Benefits of Car-Sharing – Co-operative Auto Network

Where can you find Car Sharing in North America

@World Car Share Consortium

Carsharing.ca

Car Sharing News

Zipcar : Green Benefits

AutoShare Toronto – Car Sharing

Vrtucar.com – Ottawa ON

The People’s Car Co-op – Waterloo Ontario

Cooperative Auto Network – Vancouver B.C.

CarSharing Handbook – How to start a car co-op in your community.

Peterborough UK City Council – Car share scheme aims to cut congestion and travel costs

Freewheelers: International Car Share Directory

*****

 

Other alternatives to cars:

Share a car for occasional use, rent a car for longer trips once in a while, and use transit, train, bus or bike as primary transportation. Before dismissing the notion, take a look at some of the options below.

*****

Cool bikes and electric scooters:

Dynamic Commuter Bike

Gowatt – electric bicycles

Gowatt – Scooter – E-Light

Segway

I gave up my car and saved $16,000

 

 

Where can you find this gem? An all-weather bike for $650 USD? Or is there a mistake on the price?
Shirouma Science’s All Weather Bicycle.

 

 

HPV’s (Human Powered Vehicles), Velomobiles, Hybrid HPV/EV’s:

The Leitra

Aerorider | Hybrid HPV/Electric Vehicle | Velomobiel

The go-one³

IHPVA velomobile page

 

North American Velomobilist website

 

Velomobile USA

 

The Velomobile Is Comin’ To Town

 

BentRider Velomobile guide

In search of an all-weather bike | GreenAsh

*****

 

 

Green car rentals, airport shuttles and taxis:

The Hertz Green Collection in Europe

PlanetTran – Eco-Friendly Airport Shuttle Service

thegreenguy: Reviewed: ecoigo, London’s newest green taxi service

globeandmail.com: Green cab, clean air, full pockets

Green Car Congress: New Yorkers Want Hybrid Taxis; Taxi Commission Isnt So Sure

Is That a Tinge of Green on New York’s Yellow Cabs? – New York Times

Microcabs: A Bloody Good Idea!: Taxi Cab | Hydrogen Fuel Cell | London, England

*****

Alternative fuels locater & other resources:

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

MapQuest: Find alternative fuels

Oliomap is your Wikimap for biodiesel and VegOil services

Top 12 Greenest and Meanest vehicles of 2007, as defined by ACEEE – AutoblogGreen

Top 100 Green Cars – Yahoo! Autos

Federal and state purchasing incentives

Government Incentives in Canada – Environmental fiscal reform in Canada

Recommendations for Incentives – Green Budget Coalition Canada

35 mpg fuel conservation numbers from the Union of Concerned Scientists

Guess who made $1,252 a second, every second last year?

Alternative Fuel Choices – AOL Autos

Baby Steps and Big Leaps: Greener cars are here …

Posted in alternative, bicycle, bike, biodiesel, biofuel, car co-op, car sharing, carbon, economy, electric car, ethanol, fuel cell, global warming, green car, hybrid, hydrogen, renewable, sustainability, tesla on February 7, 2007 by jtoddring

Baby Steps and Big Leaps:

Greener cars are here

The Best:

Neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV’s)

Most people drive within a radius of less than 30km. Most trips are in-town. If you only go out of town once or twice a month, you can save a lot of money and reduce your environmental impact and greenhouse gas emissions by buying an NEV to use for 90% of your trips, and renting a car or taking the bus or train for out of town trips. There are a number of cute, quiet, fun and practical NEV’s available, and they’re pretty affordable: $10-16 USD. You just plug them in when you go home at night. Electricity costs far less than gas, so you save big time.

Ideally, you have converted your home to be off-grid, powered by wind and solar, so there are no greenhouse gas emissions and no smog created from dirty coal-fired power plants that recharge your batteries. To do this you’d need $15-20k or so, depending on your power consumption. You would then have a truly zero emission car, and no energy bills or gas costs. Think of that at your next $40 fill-up at the gas station. 5,000 to 15,000 lbs (2,000 to 7,000 kg) of carbon dioxide emitted per year by the average petro-dependent car. Another 10,000 to 15,000 lbs a year of CO2 emissions from your home heating and electricity needs. Or, a $40k investment to wipe out your home and car CO2 emissions, and free yourself from gas and energy bills forever. Hm. Smart investment – in your future, and the future of all life on earth.

If your average heat and electricity bills come to a total of $250 a month, and you spend an average of $150 a month on gas for your conventional car or truck, it would take 100 months, or 8.3 years to recoup your investment, after which time you would be saving $400 a month. Over the span of 20 years, you would therefore save yourself $56,000! And that’s if gas and energy prices don’t go up – which of course they will. Is this a no-brainer or what? Of course, you have to have the cash to do this, or else take out a loan. For those who can, it only makes sense: financially as well as ecologically. You can make a higher return on investment in other ways, but ethically, this is a true win-win situation, others likely are not.

Zenn:

Zero emission, no noise vehicle – from a new Canadian car company, based in Toronto.

ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

ZENN Savings Calculator

Zap!

The only electric car presently available in the U.S.

ZAP

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Sedan

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Pick Up

Xebra Xero

ZAPTruck XL


Reva

A great little electric car from India.

Reva worldwide

REVA photo gallery

G-Wiz

World’s best-selling electric car. Very cute 4-seater hatchback.

G-Wiz electric car

G-Wiz testimonials – GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Where to buy them:

In Canada
ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

U.S.
ZAP

Europe
about GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Soon to arrive:

Electric cars that can take to the highway

The Tesla Roadster

A car that will prove the compatibility of electric vehicles with style, performance and power. An expensive top-end sports car that will open the door for the company to produce more affordable cars in the future. Release date: expected 2008 or 2009.
Mechanical Resonance: The Tesla Motors Press Intro, Complete With Governator – Jalopnik

Video of the Tesla Roadster testing on ice! (ok, you have to really love cars to appreciate this)

The Chevy Volt

Hopefully an affordable highway-ready electric car. Release date unknown. Hopefully 2009.
Detroit Auto Show: It’s here. GM’s plug-in hybrid is the Chevy Volt Concept – AutoblogGreen

Second-best:

The hybrids

The Prius still takes the prize, but it’s good to see more choices available.
Compare Hybrid Cars

Hybrid SUV’s sound like a bad joke, but if you must haul your ass in nearly 4,000 Lbs of glass and steel, you might as well make that pig at least somewhat efficient.
Compare Hybrid SUVs

Can’t forget the Smart car!

Smart Shows Diesel and Gasoline Hybrids, EV and CNG Prototypes of smart Car

Bio-Fuel Babies:

Not the ultimate in green fuel cars, but a step ahead at least

Ford Focus Flexi-Fuel
Green-Car-Guide.com

Saab 9-5 Turbo BioPower
Green-Car-Guide.com

And the coolest little cars I’ve ever seen: Obvio !
OBVIO !

Obvio ! model 828 specs

Obvio 012

One concept car – production date unknown:
Lotus Exige 265E
Road Test: Lotus Exige 265E

The Bio-Fuel Option:

Bio-fuel is not a panacea, nor an ultimate answer, but it is a step, a step in the right direction, and for that reason, it is highly valuable as a technology. Bio-fuel from ethanol produces 70% less greenhouse gas emissions than gas or diesel, and cuts our dependence on oil. For these reasons, it should be pursued vigourously. It should be one facet of a multi-faceted strategy to cut our greenhouse gas emissions, to move in the direction of genuine sustainability, and to reduce and ultimately eliminate our dependence on oil.

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

Brazil has just announced an investment of USD $8.4 billion (that’s billion, not million) over the next four years in bio-fuels – 77 new ethanol mills and 46 new biodiesel plants. Canada?

The Chinese government is not stupid. The world is running out of cheap oil. They know this, and are taking steps to secure their energy resources for the coming years and decades. While they are busy signing contracts, making investments and forming economic and military alliances to secure their access to the world’s remaining oil reserves, they are also busy diversifying their energy resources. China recently invested $350 million to build two giant bio-fuel ethanol plants in Sweden, to make bio-fuel from forest waste. As the Swedish Environment Minister has said, in a country that is 60% forest-covered, bio-fuel from forestry waste makes obvious sense.

Canada should join the 21st century and stop subsidizing oil companies, and start heavily investing in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste.

We have among the largest remaining forests in the world, and if we practice sustained yield forestry, we will have for decades and generations to come. With all this foretry activity however, comes a huge waste issue. Only 30% of the wood cut in a typical forestry operation is used; 70% is waste. 70% of the cut wood is either burned as slash – a ridiculous thing to do as it releases enormous quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere, compounding our global warming problems – or is left to rot, which also compounds global warming as the rotting wood releases methane gas, another greenhouse gas. What makes sense is to turn that waste into ethanol. This is already being done, and bravo to those involved. But it needs to be accelerated and expanded many fold.

We have entire communities in Canada – many of them – that are almost entirely dependent upon the forestry industry. Many of these communities are struggling: job losses, economic decay, social decay, loss of hope, despair – not a pretty sight. The answer, along with value-added forestry industry development, is bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste. Jobs, prosperity, community economic recovery and strengthening, thriving, vibrant communities – and a cleaner, greener, renewable fuel system for our country. We should be dong this now. Take the $4 billion the former Liberal government was going to give away to big corporations as a measure of the money our federal government throws away. With just a quarter of this amount, we could quickly develop one of the world’s leading bio-fuel industries, with economic benefits to Canadians, jobs, and huge environmental benefits. Sweden is showing how an economy can be retooled to make it not just more environmentally sustainable, but also to shift its entire economic base toward environmental technologies. Here in Canada we can take the lead, or we can live in the last century.

Ultimately, we would want to shift the newly developed bio-fuel ethanol industry, based on forestry waste, to a full hydrogen system. By burning bio-fuel ethanol in vehicles we reduce emissions and oil dependency, but emissions are still there. By investing first in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste, then later re-investing to shift to hydrogen production, we can make this a zero-emission fuel and energy system. The investment needed for this second phase would be large, but the economic as well as environmental benefits would be great. Solar, wind and tidal powered steam reformation is the technology that will take us from leading edge bio-fuel ethanol, to the ultimate: zero emission hydrogen from clean, renewable sources.

Cars are now being produced that can run on either gasoline or bio-fuel ethanol, depending on fuel availability. This is the transition technology. The ideal fuel source is described above. Add to this technology mix the dual-fuel hydrogen system demonstrated by BMW. BMW’s Hydrogen 7 can run on either hydrogen or gasoline, depending on fuel availability. Thus we now have the technology to have cars that will run on gasoline, bio-fuel ethanol, or hydrogen, depending on fuel availability. This technology will take us the rest of the way. We can then move seamlessly from oil-dependent smog-belching resource-depleting conventional gas and diesel automobiles, to bio-fuel, to hydrogen. From worst, to better to best.

Bio-diesel deserves mentioning, though it does not have the same benefits as bio-fuel ethanol. Bio-diesel is basically vegetable oil run through a conventional diesel engine. It burns cleaner, reducing engine wear as well as emissions. It is also a non-fossil fuel energy source that can help free us from oil dependency. But it does come from food crops, and this is its weakness. You can’t both feed the planet, and fuel your car with bio-diesel – there simply isn’t enough farmland. So bio-diesel makes sense, in that it will be a temporary measure, a stop-gap, a transition technology that helps us get from high carbon, high greenhouse gas emissions, and oil dependency, to a low carbon, low emission, oil-free society. It does not however, deserve to be our primary strategy, or anything close. It should be funded massively, to switch existing diesel engines to something that at least is a little better. But it will have to be a technology that exists along side electric vehicles, bio-fuel ethanol and hydrogen, all of which will be and should be more primary and far more predominant.

Bo-diesel from waste oil is highly praised in environmental circles, but it is a tiny niche only, not a mass-application: there simply isn’t enough waste oil to fuel even a small fraction of the automobiles on the planet. It’s great for a few people, but not an answer for a society.

Sweden‘s example:

“Using energy more efficiently and in particular reducing dependency on oil is critical…Sweden has used economic instruments for decades – and in particular a carbon dioxide tax since 1991. Biofuels are exempt. The effect has been significant….In a country where 60 per cent of the territory is covered by forests biofuels is an obvious choice. This will also generate more jobs, especially in the north and in the rural areas.

[Swedish] Parliament has passed a Government Bill to increase public access to renewable fuels. Under the new legislation, all large petrol stations in Sweden must offer renewable motor fuels, such as biogas or ethanol.

Sweden’s national policy on the promotion of biofuels also include tax relief on environment-friendly fuels and cars along with subsidies for the production of biofuels. Subsidies are also available for local incentives such as reduced parking fees and car parks dedicated exclusively to biofuel vehicles.

However, today’s challenges represent tomorrow’s opportunities – if we use them!

The Swedish government sees environmental technologies as an important sector for economic development and growth. According to Statistics Sweden, the environment sector in our country has annual sales of approximately 35.3 billion US dollars and employs some 90 000 people. The Swedish Environmental Technology Council has a database comprising more than 1 600 companies that are working in the sector. Bear in mind that Sweden only has 9 million inhabitants. So it is reasonable to say that environmental technology is currently one of most important sectors in Sweden.

Today we are focusing our attention on biogas and its potential.”

– Minister for the Environment, Sweden

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

China invests in Swedish bioenergy

Swedish biofuel sales grow 270% in 2006

Making Sweden an OIL-FREE Society

Nordic Countries Design Sustainable Communities: The Natural Step for Eco-Villages

Portugal wants 45% renewable electricity output and 10% of all fuels to be biofuels

Renewable Energy World – Renewables global status update: Investment and capacity soar while support policies continue to multiply

BBC NEWS | Business | Biofuel raises global dilemmas

BBC NEWS | Business | Car firms and investors greet UK biofuel

Bioenergy pact between Europe and Africa

Wisconsin shooting for leadership in energy independence – AutoblogGreen

Inside Greentech is hosting a live web seminar examining cellulosic ethanol technologies in April – sign up now

Editorial: Thoughts on the performance and potential of ethanol – AutoblogGreen

Venture Capital jumps into the lobbying game for alternative fuels – AutoblogGreen

***Virgin Group pledges $3 billion to fight global warming at CGI – AutoblogGreen

Most Honourable Mention:

BMW’s Hydrogen 7

Had we a hydrogen fuel distribution system in place to utilize it, BMW’s Hydrogen 7 would be the cream of the crop. As we are still waiting for such a fuel delivery system, the H7 is honourable, but not yet practical – at least outside of a few places like LA and Silicon Valley.
BMW officially announces the BMW Hydrogen 7 – AutoblogGreen

Honda FCX:

First hydrogen fuel cell car to be released in 2008.
Hydrogen Wonder – AOL Autos

Hydrogen:

Dream of the future, now.

The nay-sayers can stop the sniping now. Hydrogen is here. It’s safe, it’s proven, and it works. Yes, there are two big remaining questions, but with a modest amount of creative intelligence and the necessary determination, these can be quickly overcome. What hydrogen means, is an alternative to oil addiction, a fuel (an energy carrier to be precise) that, when made from either water or waste using solar, wind or tidal power, is truly clean, green, renewable and sustainable. A hydrogen vehicle emits only water vapour out the tailpipe. And the hydrogen can be made from the two things we have in great abundance on earth: water and waste. (The water is returned to the atmosphere as the car burns the hydrogen, cleanly completing the cycle. And sewage, compost and landfill waste we are not likely to run out of.) Combined with solar, wind and tidal power, hydrogen is, as the president of Ford has recently said, the fuel of the 21st century.

The two big remaining questions for hydrogen are: distribution and source. There is only one place on earth that I know of where a hydrogen distribution system is being built – California. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has committed $100 million to build the world’s first hydrogen highway, with 200 fueling stations down the length of the state. He has also recently announced plans to extend the hydrogen highway to Vancouver, B.C. in Canada, and south into Mexico.

This, of course, is what Canada should be doing as well. When the former Liberal government was willing to give away $4 billion in additional tax breaks to big, profitable corporations, clearly we can afford to build a trans-Canada hydrogen highway. As a start, we would need a hydrogen fueling station every 100 miles across the 4,000 mile stretch coast to coast. At half a million dollars each (USD) that would be 40 stations costing USD $20 million, or $24 million CDN. Throw in another half million per station and we could make the hydrogen on-site, with solar and wind powered electrolysis hydrogen generation systems, or where water is scarce, with steam reformation of biogas – gas produced naturally from sewage, compost or landfills.

$50 million for a clean, green, sustainable trans-Canada hydrogen highway. With the equivalent of the Liberals’ $4 billion corporate give-away we could build such a hydrogen infrastructure 20 times over. What the hell are we waiting for? Obviously, no political party has yet to come to power in Canada with sufficient balls or brains, or such a vision would by now be a reality. Let’s put the pressure on to make it happen. This should be a project we get behind and get excited about – something on the scale of the historic trans-Canada rail line, but arguably far more important.

The second big question regarding hydrogen is the source of the fuel. If we let the oil companies control the coming hydrogen economy, they’re going to want to make hydrogen from natural gas – of course, since it would mean they stay in the game, and get high profits from polluting methods of hydrogen fuel generation. What would be infinitely smarter, would be to generate the hydrogen from solar, wind and/or tidal power, either from water, by electrolysis, or where water supplies are limited, from sewage, compost or landfill gas. Every city, town and county can thereby be energy self-sufficient, assuming some serious efforts are made at energy conservation and efficiency. We would then tell the big oil companies to take a hike.

Yes, generating hydrogen from electrolysis, from water, is energy inefficient, but with abundant solar, wind and tidal power, that is not a problem. Slaughter in the Middle East for oil is not a very feasible alternative, if we are at all still alive to our humanity, nor are the unending greenhouse gas emissions a viable option. Electric vehicles have their own inefficiencies, especially if they are plugged into a highly polluting energy grid that itself operates with very low rates of energy efficiency. Biodiesel makes sense, reducing oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions, but turning crops into fuel while millions starve, is not all that ethical, one would have to admit. Biofuel ethanol spells the same thing, at least when the ethanol is produced from cropland. If it is produced from waste – such as forest waste – then it makes sense, but there will still need to be a number of technologies developed and implemented in order to wean ourselves off gas and oil as quickly as possible. Hybrids are great, but they’re still petrol-burners, and as such are not sufficient in themselves. They are a step in the right direction, not the ultimate answer. Now a flexi-fuel hybrid that can run on whatever fuel is available – gas, biofuel ethanol or hydrogen – backed by an electric hybrid system, would be the best possible transition system. One way or another, we have to get from an oil-dependent, carbon-heavy, highly wasteful, highly polluting society, to one that is clean green, low carbon and sustainable. Hydrogen is one technology that will help us get there.

All in all, hydrogen from electrolysis – from water – or from waste – municipal sewage, compost or landfill gas – makes very good sense, so long as the hydrogen generation systems are powered by truly clean, green renewable energy. We are talking about an energy revolution if we make this happen. No more monopolies over world energy supplies: community controlled energy sources. This is a social revolution, not just an ecological one. Control over energy means control in society. If big corporations control the energy that runs our society, then they control the levers of power. If communities control their own energy supplies, then they control their own fate. They are not pawns, spectators, cogs or consumers alone. Communities and individuals become empowered when control over energy is decentralized, brought down to earth. Hydrogen fuel, when combined with distributed generation that is in the hands of communities, powered by wind, water and solar, is a social revolution.

Whether we are talking about electric cars, bio-fuel cars or hydrogen cars, the source of the fuel is critical. Electric cars powered by coal plants is unsustainable. Bio-fuel cars powered by food crops is unethical and unfeasible on a global scale. Hydrogen cars fueled by natural gas-derived hydrogen would be a red herring. But all three are feasible and ecologically superior to petroleum if done with some forethought and clear-headedness.

Yes, electrolysis and stream reformation production of hydrogen are both low-efficiency processes, but with abundant solar, wind or tidal power that really becomes a non-issue. We are ultimately storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen, which is a very convenient storage medium, and the power ultimately comes from the wind, water or sun. It should be remembered that the entire electric grid is grossly inefficient, from generating plant to transmission towers, and so too are gasoline and diesel cars terribly inefficient. The gas or diesel car utilizes only 15-20% of the energy of its fuel to move the car; the rest is lost in heat and friction. (And this does not include the enormous energy consumption and inefficiencies involved in the exploration, extraction, shipping and refining of the oil.) That’s not terribly efficient, and the electrical power grid runs at similar gross inefficiencies. So harping about the inefficiency of hydrogen production is not particularly appropriate or relevant, considering all of the above. The relevant question is one of cost, but that is one we have to suck up and subsidize, in order to create the needed infrastructure. Once we have built the infrastructure, the hydrogen generation and distribution network, using renewable energy sources, we have essentially free fuel. Pay now, or pay later. If we pay now, and invest in this smart technology, the fuel of the 21st century, we can save ourselves a lot of pain, in terms of environmental crisis, oil dependency, resource wars and global warming; and we can also reap economic rewards by becoming world leaders in leading edge environmental technologies.

And yes, hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source – just as batteries in an electric car are an energy carrier, not an energy source. So what? The point is, hydrogen can be produced sustainably, cleanly and from renewable energy sources – using solar, wind and tidal power – just as electric cars can be powered by the same clean, green energies. Problem…? (In fact, storing energy for an electric vehicle can be accomplished either through batteries or with hydrogen fuel cells. The fuel cells operate as energy carriers just as the batteries do, only with potentially fewer disposal problems – battery disposal is an issue in itself. )I’d rather drive a BMW Hydrogen 7, powered by my own at home electrolysis unit, which in turn runs on off-grid clean solar and wind power, than run an electric car that sucks up its juice from a coal fired power plant – to make the comparison of energy sources clear. It makes a difference where the energy comes from, yes, and this applies equally to electric and hydrogen cars. Both are zero emission vehicles, and both require some energy source to run them. More nuke plants and coal plants to juice those millions of electric cars, would be a nightmare, just as hydrogen cars running on fuel made from natural gas would be stupid and unecological. But nobody in their right mind – outside the nuke lobby – is advocating more nuke plants, when we still don’t have a clue as to how to safely dispose of radioactive waste that has a half-life of a hundred thousand years; and no-one in their right mind would advocate more coal plants. We do have options. Bio-fuels make sense, particularly when the source used for producing it is carefully chosen. Electric (EV) and hydrogen cars both make sense, but are only at their best under certain very specific conditions. For EV’s, the power should ultimately come from clean, renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or tidal power. Exactly the same is true for hydrogen. And both are viable – right now. The problem with hydrogen is simply, will we do it? Will we cough up the investment for the needed fuel distribution infrastructure? We could build it in less than a year if we wanted to, and it wouldn’t cost that much. The trouble is, big oil has more clout in the capitals of Canada, the U.S. and Britain than brains have sway – as with many other nations. I hope this changes soon. The technology is ready, but are we? What in hell are we waiting for?


Hydrogen is happening:


Cutting through the fog – and the smog


ITS Hydrogen Highway Launch Event

British Columbia’s own Hydrogen Highway | Hydrogen Use

Hydrogen Bus Demonstration Completed In Manitoba, Partners Invest $600,000 In Technology

Hydrogen fuel station in Sweden…. ConocoPhillips buys E-Gas patents … fuel cell water taxi Diesel Progress North American Edition – Find Articles

Berlin, Shanghai and Amsterdam unveil hydrogen buses

London Hydrogen Action Plan

London Hydrogen Partnership – Peugeot

H2.ca – Hydrogen Water Taxi in Newport Harbor

BBC News | SCI/TECH | Iceland launches energy revolution

BMW’s hydrogen powered 7-Series

BBC NEWS Science-Nature Sun and hydrogen ‘to fuel future’

Canadian Group Produces Hydrogen from Water Using Solar Energy

SHEC Labs achieved breakthrough performance in manufacturing …

Sunlight Used To Produce Hydrogen From Water

US legislator wants to reward hydrogen inventors

Growing hydrogen for the cars of tomorrow – energy-fuels – 25 February 2006 – New Scientist

Treehugger Garbage to Hydrogen, Just Add Sun

Sewage turned into hydrogen fuel – 29 April 2002 – New Scientist

Nanotubes crank out hydrogen TRN 020905

Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Transports Inauguration Guests

EERC Demonstrates Hydrogen Production at Ethanol Facilities

NHA Renewables to Hydrogen Forum

Wal-Mart Completes Test of Fuel-Cell Pallet Trucks

H2 on-site refueling system – Nuvera to Provide PowerTap Hydrogen Refueling System

Green Car Congress: Two Dutch Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles: NEV and Scooter

Canadian zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell bus

‘The Future of Racing’ Unveiled to Auto Industry Leaders and Motorsport Dignitaries in Detroit

California’s 2007 Guidelines for Renewable Energy Rebates, Including Fuel Cells

The Accept H2 Project: An international study funded by the European Commission

The US and Europe Getting Down to Business – Implementation of the Hydrogen Economy

Beyond Batteries: Portable Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

Another option:

Don’t own, share

The Benefits of Car-Sharing – Co-operative Auto Network

Where can you find Car Sharing in North America

@World Car Share Consortium

Carsharing.ca

Car Sharing News

Zipcar : Green Benefits

AutoShare Toronto – Car Sharing

Vrtucar.com – Ottawa ON

The People’s Car Co-op – Waterloo Ontario

Cooperative Auto Network – Vancouver B.C.

CarSharing Handbook – How to start a car co-op in your community.

Peterborough UK City Council – Car share scheme aims to cut congestion and travel costs

Freewheelers: International Car Share Directory

Other alternatives to cars:

Share a car for occasional use, rent a car for longer trips once in a while, and use transit, train, bus or bike as primary transportation. Before dismissing the notion, take a look at some of the options below.

Cool bikes and electric scooters:

Dynamic Commuter Bike

Gowatt – electric bicycles

Gowatt – Scooter – E-Light

Segway

I gave up my car and saved $16,000

Where can you find this gem? An all-weather bike for $650 USD? Or is there a mistake on the price?
Shirouma Science’s All Weather Bicycle.

HPV’s (Human Powered Vehicles), Velomobiles, Hybrid HPV/EV’s:

The Leitra

Aerorider | Hybrid HPV/Electric Vehicle | Velomobiel

The go-one³

IHPVA velomobile page

North American Velomobilist website

Velomobile USA

The Velomobile Is Comin’ To Town

BentRider Velomobile guide

In search of an all-weather bike | GreenAsh

Green car rentals, airport shuttles and taxis:

The Hertz Green Collection in Europe

PlanetTran – Eco-Friendly Airport Shuttle Service

thegreenguy: Reviewed: ecoigo, London’s newest green taxi service

globeandmail.com: Green cab, clean air, full pockets

Green Car Congress: New Yorkers Want Hybrid Taxis; Taxi Commission Isnt So Sure

Is That a Tinge of Green on New York’s Yellow Cabs? – New York Times

Microcabs: A Bloody Good Idea!: Taxi Cab | Hydrogen Fuel Cell | London, England

Alternative fuels locater & other resources:

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

MapQuest: Find alternative fuels

Oliomap is your Wikimap for biodiesel and VegOil services

Top 12 Greenest and Meanest vehicles of 2007, as defined by ACEEE – AutoblogGreen

Top 100 Green Cars – Yahoo! Autos

Federal and state purchasing incentives

Government Incentives in Canada – Environmental fiscal reform in Canada

Recommendations for Incentives – Green Budget Coalition Canada

35 mpg fuel conservation numbers from the Union of Concerned Scientists

Guess who made $1,252 a second, every second last year?

Alternative Fuel Choices – AOL Autos

Posted in alternative, bicycle, bike, biodiesel, biofuel, car co-op, car sharing, carbon, economy, electric car, ethanol, fuel cell, global warming, green car, hybrid, hydrogen, renewable, sustainability, tesla on February 7, 2007 by jtoddring

Baby Steps and Big Leaps:

Greener cars are here

The Best:

Neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV’s)

Most people drive within a radius of less than 30km. Most trips are in-town. If you only go out of town once or twice a month, you can save a lot of money and reduce your environmental impact and greenhouse gas emissions by buying an NEV to use for 90% of your trips, and renting a car or taking the bus or train for out of town trips. There are a number of cute, quiet, fun and practical NEV’s available, and they’re pretty affordable: $10-16 USD. You just plug them in when you go home at night. Electricity costs far less than gas, so you save big time.

Ideally, you have converted your home to be off-grid, powered by wind and solar, so there are no greenhouse gas emissions and no smog created from dirty coal-fired power plants that recharge your batteries. To do this you’d need $15-20k or so, depending on your power consumption. You would then have a truly zero emission car, and no energy bills or gas costs. Think of that at your next $40 fill-up at the gas station. 5,000 to 15,000 lbs (2,000 to 7,000 kg) of carbon dioxide emitted per year by the average petro-dependent car. Another 10,000 to 15,000 lbs a year of CO2 emissions from your home heating and electricity needs. Or, a $40k investment to wipe out your home and car CO2 emissions, and free yourself from gas and energy bills forever. Hm. Smart investment – in your future, and the future of all life on earth.

If your average heat and electricity bills come to a total of $250 a month, and you spend an average of $150 a month on gas for your conventional car or truck, it would take 100 months, or 8.3 years to recoup your investment, after which time you would be saving $400 a month. Over the span of 20 years, you would therefore save yourself $56,000! And that’s if gas and energy prices don’t go up – which of course they will. Is this a no-brainer or what? Of course, you have to have the cash to do this, or else take out a loan. For those who can, it only makes sense: financially as well as ecologically. You can make a higher return on investment in other ways, but ethically, this is a true win-win situation, others likely are not.

Zenn:

Zero emission, no noise vehicle – from a new Canadian car company, based in Toronto.

ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

ZENN Savings Calculator

Zap!

The only electric car presently available in the U.S.

ZAP

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Sedan

ZAP Xebra 100% Electric EV Pick Up

Xebra Xero

ZAPTruck XL


Reva

A great little electric car from India.

Reva worldwide

REVA photo gallery

G-Wiz

World’s best-selling electric car. Very cute 4-seater hatchback.

G-Wiz electric car

G-Wiz testimonials – GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Where to buy them:

In Canada
ZENN Motor Company – Welcome to the Web Site of the leading developer, manufacturer and supplier of electric vehicles.

U.S.
ZAP

Europe
about GoinGreen – Driving Down Pollution

Soon to arrive:

Electric cars that can take to the highway

The Tesla Roadster

A car that will prove the compatibility of electric vehicles with style, performance and power. An expensive top-end sports car that will open the door for the company to produce more affordable cars in the future. Release date: expected 2008 or 2009.
Mechanical Resonance: The Tesla Motors Press Intro, Complete With Governator – Jalopnik

Video of the Tesla Roadster testing on ice! (ok, you have to really love cars to appreciate this)

The Chevy Volt

Hopefully an affordable highway-ready electric car. Release date unknown. Hopefully 2009.
Detroit Auto Show: It’s here. GM’s plug-in hybrid is the Chevy Volt Concept – AutoblogGreen

Second-best:

The hybrids

The Prius still takes the prize, but it’s good to see more choices available.
Compare Hybrid Cars

Hybrid SUV’s sound like a bad joke, but if you must haul your ass in nearly 4,000 Lbs of glass and steel, you might as well make that pig at least somewhat efficient.
Compare Hybrid SUVs

Can’t forget the Smart car!

Smart Shows Diesel and Gasoline Hybrids, EV and CNG Prototypes of smart Car

Bio-Fuel Babies:

Not the ultimate in green fuel cars, but a step ahead at least

Ford Focus Flexi-Fuel
Green-Car-Guide.com

Saab 9-5 Turbo BioPower
Green-Car-Guide.com

And the coolest little cars I’ve ever seen: Obvio !
OBVIO !

Obvio ! model 828 specs

Obvio 012

One concept car – production date unknown:
Lotus Exige 265E
Road Test: Lotus Exige 265E

The Bio-Fuel Option:

Bio-fuel is not a panacea, nor an ultimate answer, but it is a step, a step in the right direction, and for that reason, it is highly valuable as a technology. Bio-fuel from ethanol produces 70% less greenhouse gas emissions than gas or diesel, and cuts our dependence on oil. For these reasons, it should be pursued vigourously. It should be one facet of a multi-faceted strategy to cut our greenhouse gas emissions, to move in the direction of genuine sustainability, and to reduce and ultimately eliminate our dependence on oil.

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

Brazil has just announced an investment of USD $8.4 billion (that’s billion, not million) over the next four years in bio-fuels – 77 new ethanol mills and 46 new biodiesel plants. Canada?

The Chinese government is not stupid. The world is running out of cheap oil. They know this, and are taking steps to secure their energy resources for the coming years and decades. While they are busy signing contracts, making investments and forming economic and military alliances to secure their access to the world’s remaining oil reserves, they are also busy diversifying their energy resources. China recently invested $350 million to build two giant bio-fuel ethanol plants in Sweden, to make bio-fuel from forest waste. As the Swedish Environment Minister has said, in a country that is 60% forest-covered, bio-fuel from forestry waste makes obvious sense.

Canada should join the 21st century and stop subsidizing oil companies, and start heavily investing in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste.

We have among the largest remaining forests in the world, and if we practice sustained yield forestry, we will have for decades and generations to come. With all this foretry activity however, comes a huge waste issue. Only 30% of the wood cut in a typical forestry operation is used; 70% is waste. 70% of the cut wood is either burned as slash – a ridiculous thing to do as it releases enormous quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere, compounding our global warming problems – or is left to rot, which also compounds global warming as the rotting wood releases methane gas, another greenhouse gas. What makes sense is to turn that waste into ethanol. This is already being done, and bravo to those involved. But it needs to be accelerated and expanded many fold.

We have entire communities in Canada – many of them – that are almost entirely dependent upon the forestry industry. Many of these communities are struggling: job losses, economic decay, social decay, loss of hope, despair – not a pretty sight. The answer, along with value-added forestry industry development, is bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste. Jobs, prosperity, community economic recovery and strengthening, thriving, vibrant communities – and a cleaner, greener, renewable fuel system for our country. We should be dong this now. Take the $4 billion the former Liberal government was going to give away to big corporations as a measure of the money our federal government throws away. With just a quarter of this amount, we could quickly develop one of the world’s leading bio-fuel industries, with economic benefits to Canadians, jobs, and huge environmental benefits. Sweden is showing how an economy can be retooled to make it not just more environmentally sustainable, but also to shift its entire economic base toward environmental technologies. Here in Canada we can take the lead, or we can live in the last century.

Ultimately, we would want to shift the newly developed bio-fuel ethanol industry, based on forestry waste, to a full hydrogen system. By burning bio-fuel ethanol in vehicles we reduce emissions and oil dependency, but emissions are still there. By investing first in bio-fuel ethanol from forest waste, then later re-investing to shift to hydrogen production, we can make this a zero-emission fuel and energy system. The investment needed for this second phase would be large, but the economic as well as environmental benefits would be great. Solar, wind and tidal powered steam reformation is the technology that will take us from leading edge bio-fuel ethanol, to the ultimate: zero emission hydrogen from clean, renewable sources.

Cars are now being produced that can run on either gasoline or bio-fuel ethanol, depending on fuel availability. This is the transition technology. The ideal fuel source is described above. Add to this technology mix the dual-fuel hydrogen system demonstrated by BMW. BMW’s Hydrogen 7 can run on either hydrogen or gasoline, depending on fuel availability. Thus we now have the technology to have cars that will run on gasoline, bio-fuel ethanol, or hydrogen, depending on fuel availability. This technology will take us the rest of the way. We can then move seamlessly from oil-dependent smog-belching resource-depleting conventional gas and diesel automobiles, to bio-fuel, to hydrogen. From worst, to better to best.

Bio-diesel deserves mentioning, though it does not have the same benefits as bio-fuel ethanol. Bio-diesel is basically vegetable oil run through a conventional diesel engine. It burns cleaner, reducing engine wear as well as emissions. It is also a non-fossil fuel energy source that can help free us from oil dependency. But it does come from food crops, and this is its weakness. You can’t both feed the planet, and fuel your car with bio-diesel – there simply isn’t enough farmland. So bio-diesel makes sense, in that it will be a temporary measure, a stop-gap, a transition technology that helps us get from high carbon, high greenhouse gas emissions, and oil dependency, to a low carbon, low emission, oil-free society. It does not however, deserve to be our primary strategy, or anything close. It should be funded massively, to switch existing diesel engines to something that at least is a little better. But it will have to be a technology that exists along side electric vehicles, bio-fuel ethanol and hydrogen, all of which will be and should be more primary and far more predominant.

Bo-diesel from waste oil is highly praised in environmental circles, but it is a tiny niche only, not a mass-application: there simply isn’t enough waste oil to fuel even a small fraction of the automobiles on the planet. It’s great for a few people, but not an answer for a society.

Sweden‘s example:

“Using energy more efficiently and in particular reducing dependency on oil is critical…Sweden has used economic instruments for decades – and in particular a carbon dioxide tax since 1991. Biofuels are exempt. The effect has been significant….In a country where 60 per cent of the territory is covered by forests biofuels is an obvious choice. This will also generate more jobs, especially in the north and in the rural areas.

[Swedish] Parliament has passed a Government Bill to increase public access to renewable fuels. Under the new legislation, all large petrol stations in Sweden must offer renewable motor fuels, such as biogas or ethanol.

Sweden’s national policy on the promotion of biofuels also include tax relief on environment-friendly fuels and cars along with subsidies for the production of biofuels. Subsidies are also available for local incentives such as reduced parking fees and car parks dedicated exclusively to biofuel vehicles.

However, today’s challenges represent tomorrow’s opportunities – if we use them!

The Swedish government sees environmental technologies as an important sector for economic development and growth. According to Statistics Sweden, the environment sector in our country has annual sales of approximately 35.3 billion US dollars and employs some 90 000 people. The Swedish Environmental Technology Council has a database comprising more than 1 600 companies that are working in the sector. Bear in mind that Sweden only has 9 million inhabitants. So it is reasonable to say that environmental technology is currently one of most important sectors in Sweden.

Today we are focusing our attention on biogas and its potential.”

– Minister for the Environment, Sweden

Statement by Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren at a …

China invests in Swedish bioenergy

Swedish biofuel sales grow 270% in 2006

Making Sweden an OIL-FREE Society

Nordic Countries Design Sustainable Communities: The Natural Step for Eco-Villages

Portugal wants 45% renewable electricity output and 10% of all fuels to be biofuels

Renewable Energy World – Renewables global status update: Investment and capacity soar while support policies continue to multiply

BBC NEWS | Business | Biofuel raises global dilemmas

BBC NEWS | Business | Car firms and investors greet UK biofuel

Bioenergy pact between Europe and Africa

Wisconsin shooting for leadership in energy independence – AutoblogGreen

Inside Greentech is hosting a live web seminar examining cellulosic ethanol technologies in April – sign up now

Editorial: Thoughts on the performance and potential of ethanol – AutoblogGreen

Venture Capital jumps into the lobbying game for alternative fuels – AutoblogGreen

***Virgin Group pledges $3 billion to fight global warming at CGI – AutoblogGreen

Most Honourable Mention:

BMW’s Hydrogen 7

Had we a hydrogen fuel distribution system in place to utilize it, BMW’s Hydrogen 7 would be the cream of the crop. As we are still waiting for such a fuel delivery system, the H7 is honourable, but not yet practical – at least outside of a few places like LA and Silicon Valley.
BMW officially announces the BMW Hydrogen 7 – AutoblogGreen

Honda FCX:

First hydrogen fuel cell car to be released in 2008.
Hydrogen Wonder – AOL Autos

Hydrogen:

Dream of the future, now.

The nay-sayers can stop the sniping now. Hydrogen is here. It’s safe, it’s proven, and it works. Yes, there are two big remaining questions, but with a modest amount of creative intelligence and the necessary determination, these can be quickly overcome. What hydrogen means, is an alternative to oil addiction, a fuel (an energy carrier to be precise) that, when made from either water or waste using solar, wind or tidal power, is truly clean, green, renewable and sustainable. A hydrogen vehicle emits only water vapour out the tailpipe. And the hydrogen can be made from the two things we have in great abundance on earth: water and waste. (The water is returned to the atmosphere as the car burns the hydrogen, cleanly completing the cycle. And sewage, compost and landfill waste we are not likely to run out of.) Combined with solar, wind and tidal power, hydrogen is, as the president of Ford has recently said, the fuel of the 21st century.

The two big remaining questions for hydrogen are: distribution and source. There is only one place on earth that I know of where a hydrogen distribution system is being built – California. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has committed $100 million to build the world’s first hydrogen highway, with 200 fueling stations down the length of the state. He has also recently announced plans to extend the hydrogen highway to Vancouver, B.C. in Canada, and south into Mexico.

This, of course, is what Canada should be doing as well. When the former Liberal government was willing to give away $4 billion in additional tax breaks to big, profitable corporations, clearly we can afford to build a trans-Canada hydrogen highway. As a start, we would need a hydrogen fueling station every 100 miles across the 4,000 mile stretch coast to coast. At half a million dollars each (USD) that would be 40 stations costing USD $20 million, or $24 million CDN. Throw in another half million per station and we could make the hydrogen on-site, with solar and wind powered electrolysis hydrogen generation systems, or where water is scarce, with steam reformation of biogas – gas produced naturally from sewage, compost or landfills.

$50 million for a clean, green, sustainable trans-Canada hydrogen highway. With the equivalent of the Liberals’ $4 billion corporate give-away we could build such a hydrogen infrastructure 20 times over. What the hell are we waiting for? Obviously, no political party has yet to come to power in Canada with sufficient balls or brains, or such a vision would by now be a reality. Let’s put the pressure on to make it happen. This should be a project we get behind and get excited about – something on the scale of the historic trans-Canada rail line, but arguably far more important.

The second big question regarding hydrogen is the source of the fuel. If we let the oil companies control the coming hydrogen economy, they’re going to want to make hydrogen from natural gas – of course, since it would mean they stay in the game, and get high profits from polluting methods of hydrogen fuel generation. What would be infinitely smarter, would be to generate the hydrogen from solar, wind and/or tidal power, either from water, by electrolysis, or where water supplies are limited, from sewage, compost or landfill gas. Every city, town and county can thereby be energy self-sufficient, assuming some serious efforts are made at energy conservation and efficiency. We would then tell the big oil companies to take a hike.

Yes, generating hydrogen from electrolysis, from water, is energy inefficient, but with abundant solar, wind and tidal power, that is not a problem. Slaughter in the Middle East for oil is not a very feasible alternative, if we are at all still alive to our humanity, nor are the unending greenhouse gas emissions a viable option. Electric vehicles have their own inefficiencies, especially if they are plugged into a highly polluting energy grid that itself operates with very low rates of energy efficiency. Biodiesel makes sense, reducing oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions, but turning crops into fuel while millions starve, is not all that ethical, one would have to admit. Biofuel ethanol spells the same thing, at least when the ethanol is produced from cropland. If it is produced from waste – such as forest waste – then it makes sense, but there will still need to be a number of technologies developed and implemented in order to wean ourselves off gas and oil as quickly as possible. Hybrids are great, but they’re still petrol-burners, and as such are not sufficient in themselves. They are a step in the right direction, not the ultimate answer. Now a flexi-fuel hybrid that can run on whatever fuel is available – gas, biofuel ethanol or hydrogen – backed by an electric hybrid system, would be the best possible transition system. One way or another, we have to get from an oil-dependent, carbon-heavy, highly wasteful, highly polluting society, to one that is clean green, low carbon and sustainable. Hydrogen is one technology that will help us get there.

All in all, hydrogen from electrolysis – from water – or from waste – municipal sewage, compost or landfill gas – makes very good sense, so long as the hydrogen generation systems are powered by truly clean, green renewable energy. We are talking about an energy revolution if we make this happen. No more monopolies over world energy supplies: community controlled energy sources. This is a social revolution, not just an ecological one. Control over energy means control in society. If big corporations control the energy that runs our society, then they control the levers of power. If communities control their own energy supplies, then they control their own fate. They are not pawns, spectators, cogs or consumers alone. Communities and individuals become empowered when control over energy is decentralized, brought down to earth. Hydrogen fuel, when combined with distributed generation that is in the hands of communities, powered by wind, water and solar, is a social revolution.

Whether we are talking about electric cars, bio-fuel cars or hydrogen cars, the source of the fuel is critical. Electric cars powered by coal plants is unsustainable. Bio-fuel cars powered by food crops is unethical and unfeasible on a global scale. Hydrogen cars fueled by natural gas-derived hydrogen would be a red herring. But all three are feasible and ecologically superior to petroleum if done with some forethought and clear-headedness.

Yes, electrolysis and stream reformation production of hydrogen are both low-efficiency processes, but with abundant solar, wind or tidal power that really becomes a non-issue. We are ultimately storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen, which is a very convenient storage medium, and the power ultimately comes from the wind, water or sun. It should be remembered that the entire electric grid is grossly inefficient, from generating plant to transmission towers, and so too are gasoline and diesel cars terribly inefficient. The gas or diesel car utilizes only 15-20% of the energy of its fuel to move the car; the rest is lost in heat and friction. (And this does not include the enormous energy consumption and inefficiencies involved in the exploration, extraction, shipping and refining of the oil.) That’s not terribly efficient, and the electrical power grid runs at similar gross inefficiencies. So harping about the inefficiency of hydrogen production is not particularly appropriate or relevant, considering all of the above. The relevant question is one of cost, but that is one we have to suck up and subsidize, in order to create the needed infrastructure. Once we have built the infrastructure, the hydrogen generation and distribution network, using renewable energy sources, we have essentially free fuel. Pay now, or pay later. If we pay now, and invest in this smart technology, the fuel of the 21st century, we can save ourselves a lot of pain, in terms of environmental crisis, oil dependency, resource wars and global warming; and we can also reap economic rewards by becoming world leaders in leading edge environmental technologies.

And yes, hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source – just as batteries in an electric car are an energy carrier, not an energy source. So what? The point is, hydrogen can be produced sustainably, cleanly and from renewable energy sources – using solar, wind and tidal power – just as electric cars can be powered by the same clean, green energies. Problem…? (In fact, storing energy for an electric vehicle can be accomplished either through batteries or with hydrogen fuel cells. The fuel cells operate as energy carriers just as the batteries do, only with potentially fewer disposal problems – battery disposal is an issue in itself. )I’d rather drive a BMW Hydrogen 7, powered by my own at home electrolysis unit, which in turn runs on off-grid clean solar and wind power, than run an electric car that sucks up its juice from a coal fired power plant – to make the comparison of energy sources clear. It makes a difference where the energy comes from, yes, and this applies equally to electric and hydrogen cars. Both are zero emission vehicles, and both require some energy source to run them. More nuke plants and coal plants to juice those millions of electric cars, would be a nightmare, just as hydrogen cars running on fuel made from natural gas would be stupid and unecological. But nobody in their right mind – outside the nuke lobby – is advocating more nuke plants, when we still don’t have a clue as to how to safely dispose of radioactive waste that has a half-life of a hundred thousand years; and no-one in their right mind would advocate more coal plants. We do have options. Bio-fuels make sense, particularly when the source used for producing it is carefully chosen. Electric (EV) and hydrogen cars both make sense, but are only at their best under certain very specific conditions. For EV’s, the power should ultimately come from clean, renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or tidal power. Exactly the same is true for hydrogen. And both are viable – right now. The problem with hydrogen is simply, will we do it? Will we cough up the investment for the needed fuel distribution infrastructure? We could build it in less than a year if we wanted to, and it wouldn’t cost that much. The trouble is, big oil has more clout in the capitals of Canada, the U.S. and Britain than brains have sway – as with many other nations. I hope this changes soon. The technology is ready, but are we? What in hell are we waiting for?


Hydrogen is happening:


Cutting through the fog – and the smog


ITS Hydrogen Highway Launch Event

British Columbia’s own Hydrogen Highway | Hydrogen Use

Hydrogen Bus Demonstration Completed In Manitoba, Partners Invest $600,000 In Technology

Hydrogen fuel station in Sweden…. ConocoPhillips buys E-Gas patents … fuel cell water taxi Diesel Progress North American Edition – Find Articles

Berlin, Shanghai and Amsterdam unveil hydrogen buses

London Hydrogen Action Plan

London Hydrogen Partnership – Peugeot

H2.ca – Hydrogen Water Taxi in Newport Harbor

BBC News | SCI/TECH | Iceland launches energy revolution

BMW’s hydrogen powered 7-Series

BBC NEWS Science-Nature Sun and hydrogen ‘to fuel future’

Canadian Group Produces Hydrogen from Water Using Solar Energy

SHEC Labs achieved breakthrough performance in manufacturing …

Sunlight Used To Produce Hydrogen From Water

US legislator wants to reward hydrogen inventors

Growing hydrogen for the cars of tomorrow – energy-fuels – 25 February 2006 – New Scientist

Treehugger Garbage to Hydrogen, Just Add Sun

Sewage turned into hydrogen fuel – 29 April 2002 – New Scientist

Nanotubes crank out hydrogen TRN 020905

Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Transports Inauguration Guests

EERC Demonstrates Hydrogen Production at Ethanol Facilities

NHA Renewables to Hydrogen Forum

Wal-Mart Completes Test of Fuel-Cell Pallet Trucks

H2 on-site refueling system – Nuvera to Provide PowerTap Hydrogen Refueling System

Green Car Congress: Two Dutch Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles: NEV and Scooter

Canadian zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell bus

‘The Future of Racing’ Unveiled to Auto Industry Leaders and Motorsport Dignitaries in Detroit

California’s 2007 Guidelines for Renewable Energy Rebates, Including Fuel Cells

The Accept H2 Project: An international study funded by the European Commission

The US and Europe Getting Down to Business – Implementation of the Hydrogen Economy

Beyond Batteries: Portable Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

Another option:

Don’t own, share

The Benefits of Car-Sharing – Co-operative Auto Network

Where can you find Car Sharing in North America

@World Car Share Consortium

Carsharing.ca

Car Sharing News

Zipcar : Green Benefits

AutoShare Toronto – Car Sharing

Vrtucar.com – Ottawa ON

The People’s Car Co-op – Waterloo Ontario

Cooperative Auto Network – Vancouver B.C.

CarSharing Handbook – How to start a car co-op in your community.

Peterborough UK City Council – Car share scheme aims to cut congestion and travel costs

Freewheelers: International Car Share Directory

Other alternatives to cars:

Share a car for occasional use, rent a car for longer trips once in a while, and use transit, train, bus or bike as primary transportation. Before dismissing the notion, take a look at some of the options below.

Cool bikes and electric scooters:

Dynamic Commuter Bike

Gowatt – electric bicycles

Gowatt – Scooter – E-Light

Segway

I gave up my car and saved $16,000

Where can you find this gem? An all-weather bike for $650 USD? Or is there a mistake on the price?
Shirouma Science’s All Weather Bicycle.

HPV’s (Human Powered Vehicles), Velomobiles, Hybrid HPV/EV’s:

The Leitra

Aerorider | Hybrid HPV/Electric Vehicle | Velomobiel

The go-one³

IHPVA velomobile page

North American Velomobilist website

Velomobile USA

The Velomobile Is Comin’ To Town

BentRider Velomobile guide

In search of an all-weather bike | GreenAsh

Green car rentals, airport shuttles and taxis:

The Hertz Green Collection in Europe

PlanetTran – Eco-Friendly Airport Shuttle Service

thegreenguy: Reviewed: ecoigo, London’s newest green taxi service

globeandmail.com: Green cab, clean air, full pockets

Green Car Congress: New Yorkers Want Hybrid Taxis; Taxi Commission Isnt So Sure

Is That a Tinge of Green on New York’s Yellow Cabs? – New York Times

Microcabs: A Bloody Good Idea!: Taxi Cab | Hydrogen Fuel Cell | London, England

Alternative fuels locater & other resources:

Hydrogen Fueling Station Database for Canada & the U.S.

MapQuest: Find alternative fuels

Oliomap is your Wikimap for biodiesel and VegOil services

Top 12 Greenest and Meanest vehicles of 2007, as defined by ACEEE – AutoblogGreen

Top 100 Green Cars – Yahoo! Autos

Federal and state purchasing incentives

Government Incentives in Canada – Environmental fiscal reform in Canada

Recommendations for Incentives – Green Budget Coalition Canada

35 mpg fuel conservation numbers from the Union of Concerned Scientists

Guess who made $1,252 a second, every second last year?

Alternative Fuel Choices – AOL Autos